Concepts In Chemistry Structure And Reactivity Pdf


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Book: Organic Chemistry with a Biological Emphasis (Soderberg)

Organic chemistry is a branch of chemistry that studies the structure, properties and reactions of organic compounds , which contain carbon in covalent bonding. Study of properties includes physical and chemical properties , and evaluation of chemical reactivity to understand their behavior.

The study of organic reactions includes the chemical synthesis of natural products , drugs , and polymers , and study of individual organic molecules in the laboratory and via theoretical in silico study.

The range of chemicals studied in organic chemistry includes hydrocarbons compounds containing only carbon and hydrogen as well as compounds based on carbon, but also containing other elements, [1] [2] [3] especially oxygen , nitrogen , sulfur , phosphorus included in many biochemicals and the halogens.

Organometallic chemistry is the study of compounds containing carbon— metal bonds. In addition, contemporary research focuses on organic chemistry involving other organometallics including the lanthanides , but especially the transition metals zinc, copper, palladium, nickel, cobalt, titanium and chromium. Organic compounds form the basis of all earthly life and constitute the majority of known chemicals. The bonding patterns of carbon, with its valence of four—formal single, double, and triple bonds, plus structures with delocalized electrons—make the array of organic compounds structurally diverse, and their range of applications enormous.

They form the basis of, or are constituents of, many commercial products including pharmaceuticals ; petrochemicals and agrichemicals , and products made from them including lubricants , solvents ; plastics ; fuels and explosives. The study of organic chemistry overlaps organometallic chemistry and biochemistry , but also with medicinal chemistry , polymer chemistry , and materials science.

Before the nineteenth century, chemists generally believed that compounds obtained from living organisms were endowed with a vital force that distinguished them from inorganic compounds. According to the concept of vitalism vital force theory , organic matter was endowed with a "vital force".

Around Michel Chevreul started a study of soaps made from various fats and alkalis. He separated the acids that, in combination with the alkali, produced the soap. Since these were all individual compounds, he demonstrated that it was possible to make a chemical change in various fats which traditionally come from organic sources , producing new compounds, without "vital force".

The event is now generally accepted as indeed disproving the doctrine of vitalism. In William Henry Perkin , while trying to manufacture quinine accidentally produced the organic dye now known as Perkin's mauve. His discovery, made widely known through its financial success, greatly increased interest in organic chemistry.

The era of the pharmaceutical industry began in the last decade of the 19th century when the manufacturing of acetylsalicylic acid—more commonly referred to as aspirin —in Germany was started by Bayer. Ehrlich popularized the concepts of "magic bullet" drugs and of systematically improving drug therapies. Early examples of organic reactions and applications were often found because of a combination of luck and preparation for unexpected observations.

The latter half of the 19th century however witnessed systematic studies of organic compounds. The development of synthetic indigo is illustrative.

The production of indigo from plant sources dropped from 19, tons in to 1, tons by thanks to the synthetic methods developed by Adolf von Baeyer. In , 17, tons of synthetic indigo were produced from petrochemicals. In the early part of the 20th century, polymers and enzymes were shown to be large organic molecules, and petroleum was shown to be of biological origin.

The multiple-step synthesis of complex organic compounds is called total synthesis. Total synthesis of complex natural compounds increased in complexity to glucose and terpineol.

For example, cholesterol -related compounds have opened ways to synthesize complex human hormones and their modified derivatives. Since the start of the 20th century, complexity of total syntheses has been increased to include molecules of high complexity such as lysergic acid and vitamin B The discovery of petroleum and the development of the petrochemical industry spurred the development of organic chemistry.

Converting individual petroleum compounds into types of compounds by various chemical processes led to organic reactions enabling a broad range of industrial and commercial products including, among many others: plastics , synthetic rubber , organic adhesives , and various property-modifying petroleum additives and catalysts.

The majority of chemical compounds occurring in biological organisms are carbon compounds, so the association between organic chemistry and biochemistry is so close that biochemistry might be regarded as in essence a branch of organic chemistry. Although the history of biochemistry might be taken to span some four centuries, fundamental understanding of the field only began to develop in the late 19th century and the actual term biochemistry was coined around the start of 20th century.

Research in the field increased throughout the twentieth century, without any indication of slackening in the rate of increase, as may be verified by inspection of abstraction and indexing services such as BIOSIS Previews and Biological Abstracts , which began in the s as a single annual volume, but has grown so drastically that by the end of the 20th century it was only available to the everyday user as an online electronic database.

Since organic compounds often exist as mixtures , a variety of techniques have also been developed to assess purity; chromatography techniques are especially important for this application, and include HPLC and gas chromatography. Traditional methods of separation include distillation , crystallization , and solvent extraction.

Organic compounds were traditionally characterized by a variety of chemical tests, called "wet methods", but such tests have been largely displaced by spectroscopic or other computer-intensive methods of analysis.

Refractive index and density can also be important for substance identification. The physical properties of organic compounds typically of interest include both quantitative and qualitative features.

Quantitative information includes a melting point, boiling point, and index of refraction. Qualitative properties include odor, consistency, solubility, and color. Organic compounds typically melt and many boil. In contrast, while inorganic materials generally can be melted, many do not boil, and instead tend to degrade. In earlier times, the melting point m. The melting and boiling points correlate with the polarity of the molecules and their molecular weight.

Some organic compounds, especially symmetrical ones, sublime. A well-known example of a sublimable organic compound is para-dichlorobenzene , the odiferous constituent of modern mothballs. Neutral organic compounds tend to be hydrophobic ; that is, they are less soluble in water than in organic solvents.

Exceptions include organic compounds that contain ionizable groups as well as low molecular weight alcohols , amines , and carboxylic acids where hydrogen bonding occurs. Otherwise, organic compounds tend to dissolve in organic solvents. Solubility varies widely with the organic solute and with the organic solvent. Various specialized properties of molecular crystals and organic polymers with conjugated systems are of interest depending on applications, e.

For historical reasons, such properties are mainly the subjects of the areas of polymer science and materials science. The names of organic compounds are either systematic, following logically from a set of rules, or nonsystematic, following various traditions. Systematic nomenclature starts with the name for a parent structure within the molecule of interest. This parent name is then modified by prefixes, suffixes, and numbers to unambiguously convey the structure.

Given that millions of organic compounds are known, rigorous use of systematic names can be cumbersome. Thus, IUPAC recommendations are more closely followed for simple compounds, but not complex molecules.

To use the systematic naming, one must know the structures and names of the parent structures. Parent structures include unsubstituted hydrocarbons, heterocycles, and mono functionalized derivatives thereof. Nonsystematic nomenclature is simpler and unambiguous, at least to organic chemists. Nonsystematic names do not indicate the structure of the compound. They are common for complex molecules, which include most natural products.

Thus, the informally named lysergic acid diethylamide is systematically named 6a R ,9 R - N , N -diethylmethyl-4,6,6a,7,8,9-hexahydroindolo-[4,3- fg ] quinolinecarboxamide. With the increased use of computing, other naming methods have evolved that are intended to be interpreted by machines.

Organic molecules are described more commonly by drawings or structural formulas , combinations of drawings and chemical symbols. The line-angle formula is simple and unambiguous. In this system, the endpoints and intersections of each line represent one carbon, and hydrogen atoms can either be notated explicitly or assumed to be present as implied by tetravalent carbon. By an explosion in the number of chemical compounds being discovered occurred assisted by new synthetic and analytical techniques.

Grignard described the situation as "chaos le plus complet" complete chaos due to the lack of convention it was possible to have multiple names for the same compound. This led to the creation of the Geneva rules in The concept of functional groups is central in organic chemistry, both as a means to classify structures and for predicting properties. A functional group is a molecular module, and the reactivity of that functional group is assumed, within limits, to be the same in a variety of molecules.

Functional groups can have a decisive influence on the chemical and physical properties of organic compounds. Molecules are classified based on their functional groups. Alcohols, for example, all have the subunit C-O-H.

All alcohols tend to be somewhat hydrophilic , usually form esters , and usually can be converted to the corresponding halides. Most functional groups feature heteroatoms atoms other than C and H. Organic compounds are classified according to functional groups, alcohols, carboxylic acids, amines, etc.

The aliphatic hydrocarbons are subdivided into three groups of homologous series according to their state of saturation :. The rest of the group is classed according to the functional groups present. Such compounds can be "straight-chain", branched-chain or cyclic.

The degree of branching affects characteristics, such as the octane number or cetane number in petroleum chemistry. Both saturated alicyclic compounds and unsaturated compounds exist as cyclic derivatives. The most stable rings contain five or six carbon atoms, but large rings macrocycles and smaller rings are common. The smallest cycloalkane family is the three-membered cyclopropane CH 2 3. Saturated cyclic compounds contain single bonds only, whereas aromatic rings have an alternating or conjugated double bond.

Cycloalkanes do not contain multiple bonds, whereas the cycloalkenes and the cycloalkynes do. Aromatic hydrocarbons contain conjugated double bonds. This means that every carbon atom in the ring is sp2 hybridized, allowing for added stability. Particular instability antiaromaticity is conferred by the presence of 4n conjugated pi electrons. The characteristics of the cyclic hydrocarbons are again altered if heteroatoms are present, which can exist as either substituents attached externally to the ring exocyclic or as a member of the ring itself endocyclic.

In the case of the latter, the ring is termed a heterocycle. Pyridine and furan are examples of aromatic heterocycles while piperidine and tetrahydrofuran are the corresponding alicyclic heterocycles. The heteroatom of heterocyclic molecules is generally oxygen, sulfur, or nitrogen, with the latter being particularly common in biochemical systems. Heterocycles are commonly found in a wide range of products including aniline dyes and medicines.

Additionally, they are prevalent in a wide range of biochemical compounds such as alkaloids , vitamins, steroids, and nucleic acids e. Rings can fuse with other rings on an edge to give polycyclic compounds.

Basic Concept of Organic Chemistry

This course surveys the fundamental concepts of chemistry as these topics apply to personal and societal issues such as the environment, energy production, technology and medicine. A non-mathematical approach is used where possible. The course is intended for non-science majors or as a background for science majors but does not serve as a prerequisite for any advanced chemistry course. Lecture, three hours per week. IAI: P1


Course number, Course name, Course Syllabus. First-Year Chemistry. CHEM , Concepts in Chemistry: Structure and Reactivity, PDF - kB.


Organic chemistry

Understanding of the structure and states of matter, reaction types, equations and stoichiometry, equilibrium, kinetics, thermodynamics, and descriptive and experimental chemistry is required, as is the ability to interpret and apply this material to new and. Analytical chemistry is concerned with the analysis and identification of the composition, both qualitative and quantitative, of substances. The following problems are meant to be useful study tools for students involved in most undergraduate organic chemistry courses. We continue to maintain a strong drive to meet the ever-growing needs of the scientific community through our focus in traditional and interdisciplinary areas of chemistry. Organic Chemistry seems like a new language at times but don't worry, in this video I'll translate the main ochem topics you will need to know.

Chemistry: essential concepts

The module is delivered entirely online. Audio, video and interactive activities are integrated throughout the module and you will need to download a free external software package.

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Chemistry Notes. IUPAC recognizes that to fulfill its vision, it must strongly commit to embracing and promoting transparency, diversity, inclusion, and equal opportunities for all. A chemical substance is composed of one or more than one element. The chapters that are included in the answer booklet are: Some basic concepts of chemistry; Structure of atom; Classification of elements and periodicity. Chemistry Handouts We are pleased to provide the following series of chemistry handouts to anyone who might benefit from reading them and do so free of charge. Our chemistry notes are easy-to-follow, perfectly-neat, handwritten notes that have helped thousands of students obtain the chemistry help they need. Welcome to the Department of Chemistry located in the University of Toronto, one of the leading and most widely recognized institutions in Canada.

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Keeler & Wothers: Chemical Structure and Reactivity 2e

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Bridget T.
03.04.2021 at 13:56 - Reply

J. Waser, Structure and Reactivity , Lecture Notes page 1. Structure and Reactivity and structure of the lecture. Basic concepts in organic chemistry. 2.

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