Health And Fitness Articles Pdf


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Are you fitting in at least minutes 2. Only about one in five adults and teens get enough exercise to maintain good health. Being more active can help all people think, feel and sleep better and perform daily tasks more easily. These recommendations are based on the Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans, 2nd edition , published by the U. They recommend how much physical activity we need to be healthy.

The Importance of Physical Fitness

Metrics details. The treatment of noncommunicable diseases NCD , like coronary heart disease or type 2 diabetes mellitus, causes rising costs for the health system. Physical activity is supposed to reduce the risk for these diseases. Results of cross-sectional studies showed that physical activity is associated with better health, and that physical activity could prevent the development of these diseases. Only studies published in English, about healthy adults at baseline, intentional physical activity and the listed NCDs were included.

The results of these studies show that physical activity appears to have a positive long-term influence on all selected diseases. This review revealed a paucity of long-term studies on the relationship between physical activity and the incidence of NCD.

Peer Review reports. Most of these diseases including obesity, cardiovascular heart diseases CHD or type 2 diabetes mellitus are caused by civilisation [ 1 , 2 , 5 ]. Noncommunicable diseases are mostly diseases of slow progression and normally of long duration.

The WHO identified for main types of NCDs: cardiovascular diseases, cancer, chronic respiratory diseases and diabetes [ 7 ]. Most NCDs primarily result from unhealthy lifestyles including the consumption of too much or unhealthy food [ 1 , 6 , 8 , 9 ], too much alcohol [ 1 , 8 , 10 ] and excessive smoking habits [ 1 , 8 , 11 ], combined with physical inactivity [ 1 , 2 , 8 , 12 ]. More specifically, inactivity and unhealthy eating habits are associated with weight gain, overweight and obesity are the major underlying causes for modern diseases such as CHD or type 2 diabetes mellitus [ 13 — 15 ].

Many cross-sectional and intervention studies have focused on the relationship between an unhealthy lifestyle, e. All in all, cross-sectional studies suggest that physical activity may be an important factor for improving the general health and preventing the development of among others the above mentioned NCDs [ 1 ]. Because NCDs develop, not only by definition, over a long period of time and may have many causes, understanding the development of these diseases and their association with habitual factors such as physical activity is important for developing long-term prevention programs and guidelines.

To investigate the development of these diseases, longitudinal studies with healthy persons, i. It is important to follow the general population and not specific subgroups, e.

Many cross sectional studies have researched the relationship between physical activity and health outcomes - these results are summarized in quite a number of reviews. As opposed to this, only few long-term studies about the effect of physical activity on diseases exist, and to date there are no reviews that concentrate on long-term results in an epidemiologic view.

Therefore, the purpose of this article was to review long-term effects of physical activity on the development of weight gain and obesity, CHD and type 2 diabetes mellitus in healthy adults. There is some evidence which indicates that physical activity has a positive effect against the development and progress of these two diseases.

From these studies, only longitudinal studies with five or more years of follow-up time were included to show the intermediate to long-term effects of physical activity rather than short-term effects of physical activity. In addition, only studies involving adults were included to show the disease development in adulthood and old age.

To show the development in the general population, not in subgroups, only large epidemiological studies with more than participants were included. Further, only epidemiologic longitudinal studies involving healthy adult participants at the baseline examination were included to determine the impact of normal daily activities performed by the general population.

Clinical trials, cross-sectional studies, studies involving patients, and reviews and overviews were excluded. Publications using the same study population were included as long as they held more information or investigated other topics as well. Only those studies were included that referred to intentional physical activity , e. Instead of this, activities of daily living, that are necessary to live a normal self-determined life, e.

A total of , subjects were involved at baseline , subjects at follow-up. Four publications, involving 17, subjects, studied the effect of physical activity on weight gain and obesity [ 16 — 19 ]. Six publications, involving , subjects, investigated the effect of physical activity on CHD [ 20 — 26 ]. Five publications, involving 84, subjects, studied the effect of physical activity on type 2 diabetes mellitus [ 27 — 31 ].

Some studies included more than one disease accounting for the discrepancy in the overall number of subjects and included studies. The maximum follow-up time ranged from 6 to 60 years. Overall, the studies included in this review showed a negative relationship between physical activity and weight gain or obesity over time. Additional file 1 : Table S1 summarises the examination data and the used survey sizes for the included studies on the long-term relationship between physical activity and weight gain and obesity.

Between and , DiPietro et al. The daily physical activity level was negatively related to the weight gain during the follow-up time. Those people who reduced their daily physical activity level gained a considerable amount of weight, while those people who maintained the same level of activity during the study did not gain weight.

Further, those people who increased their physical activity level during the study experienced weight loss. DiPietro et al. Hence 45 to 60 minutes of brisk walking, gardening or cycling should be included in the daily routine to maintain weight in middle-aged men. Gordon-Larsen et al. After 15 years, there was a negative association between 30 minutes walking per day and weight gain depending on the percentile of baseline weight. Data for people in the 25 th percentile of baseline weight showed no significant relation between walking duration and weight gain.

In contrast, data for people in the 50 th percentile of baseline weight revealed that for every 30 minutes of daily walking the weight gain was 0. Finally, data for people in the 75 th percentile of baseline weight showed the smallest weight gain: for every 30 minutes of walking per day, men reduced their weight gain by about 0. Hence, the results of this study indicate that participants with a higher baseline weight benefit more from being physically active for instance, for women: the total weight gain in 15 years was 13 kg for inactive women compared to only 5 kg for active women.

Hankinson et al. Of 1, men and women, those with high habitual activity at the year follow-up had a smaller increase in mean BMI, waist circumference and weight per year compared than those with low habitual activity. Men and women maintaining higher activity gained 2. In addition, the results of that study indicated that women benefit more from maintaining a higher physical activity level than men and that maintaining higher activity levels during adulthood may lessen weight gain during the course of their life.

The Copenhagen City Heart Study by Petersen, Schnohr and Sorensen [ 19 ] linked cross-sectional and 10 year long-term analyses, to determine the development of weight gain. They examined 3, women and 2, men at three measurement points at 5-year intervals. The participants were aged between 20 and 78 years at baseline.

Results of the three cross-sectional examinations 1 st at baseline, 2 nd after five years, 3 rd after 10 years also showed a negative relationship between physical activity and weight. The longitudinal analysis revealed a significant direct correlation between the level of LTPA and the risk of becoming obese for men but not for women. In contrast to the results of the cross-sectional analysis, the more active participants had a higher risk of becoming obese.

Moreover, the results of that study indicate that obesity may lead to physical inactivity. Therefore, the results of the first three studies [ 16 — 18 ] suggest a negative correlation between physical activity and weight gain after several years of follow-up greater physical activity leads to less weight gain.

In contrast, the fourth study [ 19 ] provided evidence that being more physically active leads to a greater risk of becoming obese. They suggest that obesity influences the development of physical inactivity; however they did not discuss possible causes and effect relations.

These results raise the question of the causality of the relationship between physical activity and weight gain. Detailed information, results and limitations of each study are presented in Additional file 1 : Table S1. Of all modern diseases, coronary heart disease CHD has received the most scientific scrutiny. Overall, most studies reported a negative relationship between physical activity and the occurrence of CHD for physical activity levels above the minimum energy expenditure.

Additional file 2 : Table S2 summarises the examination data and the used survey sizes of the included studies addressing the longitudinal relationship between physical activity and coronary heart diseases.

This research group investigated the general causes and the development of coronary heart disease in 5, men and women, aged 30 to 62 years at baseline [ 38 ].

The results revealed a negative association between the physical activity level and the emergence of CHD events and overall cardiovascular mortality [ 38 — 40 ]. Lee and Paffenbarger [ 20 ] compared the results of the Framingham Heart Study with data for 18, men who graduated from Harvard University between and and established the Harvard Alumni Health Study.

In five mail-back surveys, researchers investigated the association between physical activity and stroke [ 20 ] and other CHD [ 21 ]. The relationship between energy expenditure and the incidence of stroke showed a u-shape pattern [ 20 ]. Specifically, spending at least 2, to 3, kcal additional energy per week on physical activity was necessary for reducing the risk of stroke. These results were reassessed for all CHD [ 21 ] in 12, Harvard Alumni over the course of 16 years from through For CHD in general, the relationship between energy expenditure and the incidence of CHD showed the same u-shape pattern but the curve was shifted towards lower additional energy expenditure: spending at least 1, kcal additional energy per week on physical activity was necessary to reduce the risk of CHD.

Hence, moderate to vigorous additional physical activity of about 2, to 3, kcal min. Comparable results were also reported by the Honolulu Heart Program [ 22 , 23 ] including 8, men of Japanese ancestry aged 45 to 68 years at baseline who lived in Oahu, Hawaii. After 16 years, the physical activity reported at baseline was negatively related to CHD events and mortality. However, it is important to note that these results were partially mediated through the effects of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, cholesterol and BMI.

The studies cited in the next section had similar results but also featured the following additional findings. After including all covariates, a protective effect of LTPA is still noticeable. Gillum et al. However, while the u-shaped relationship between physical activity and the incidence of stroke was confirmed for men, for women greater physical activity was negatively linearly associated with the incidence of stroke.

In addition, recreational physical activity was not associated with the incidence of stroke in African American subjects, yet a significant interaction between heart rate and the incidence of stroke was observed only for African American subjects. The authors provided limited discussion of these differing results between Caucasian and African Americans.

To investigate the link between obesity and associated diseases, Li et al. Being overweight and obese was significantly associated with increased risk of CHD.

In addition, increased levels of physical activity were related to a graded reduction in CHD risk. Further, greater absolute mass in kg gained during adulthood predicted a higher CHD risk. The study concluded that obesity and physical inactivity contribute independently to the development of CHD in women.

Overall, all studies included in this review section showed a predicted negative relation between physical activity and the risk of CHD over time. Two studies [ 20 , 21 ] showed that a minimum additional energy expenditure of 1, to 2, kcal per week is necessary to achieve health related results.

Limitations of these studies comprise the inclusion of very specific and selected participants e. In addition, these results cannot be generalized for the general public because of the selected social and ethnic backgrounds of participants and unbalanced gender distributions. In addition, most studies used Caucasian subjects alone.

Hence, additional research on other ethnicities is necessary to obtain generalizable results. Moreover, the summarized studies were not designed to clarify the causality of the relationship between physical activity and CHD events.

Journal of Exercise Science & Fitness

J Am Osteopath Assoc ; 11 :e17—e Objective : To investigate the relationship between physical exercise and stress and quality of life QOL in a medical student population. Methods : This nonrandomized, controlled, week study used a survey research design. First- and second-year osteopathic medical students at the University of New England College of Osteopathic Medicine were recruited to participate in 1 of 3 groups: 1 students participating in minute CXWORX Les Mills International LTD group fitness classes; 2 students exercising alone or with up to 2 additional partners regularly eg, running, weight lifting , henceforth called the health-enhancement group ; and 3 students in a control group who did not engage in regular exercise. Participants completed the Perceived Stress Scale survey once every 4 weeks, as well as visual analog scale surveys to assess physical, mental, and emotional QOL weekly during the course of the study. Results : Sixty-nine participants met the inclusion criteria and completed the study protocol, with 25 in the fitness class group, 29 in the health-enhancement group, and 15 in the control group.


This research paper will review popular Indian articles on health and fitness pages on Facebook and analyze the content that is posted about.


Most Downloaded Journal of Exercise Science & Fitness Articles

International Journal of Women's Health and Wellness is an international, open access, peer-reviewed journal that publishes information on all aspects of the science of women. The main objective of the journal is to set a forum for education, and exchange of opinions, and to promote research and publications globally. The Journal provides a platform for all clinicians, surgeons and health professionals to contribute their findings and help raise awareness among the community on women's healthcare including but not limited to gynecology, obstetrics, and breast cancer.

Metrics details. The treatment of noncommunicable diseases NCD , like coronary heart disease or type 2 diabetes mellitus, causes rising costs for the health system. Physical activity is supposed to reduce the risk for these diseases. Results of cross-sectional studies showed that physical activity is associated with better health, and that physical activity could prevent the development of these diseases. Only studies published in English, about healthy adults at baseline, intentional physical activity and the listed NCDs were included.

To put it simply, physical activity and exercise is important for everyone. Children, adolescents, and adults of all ages need regular physical activity. Physical activity promotes good health, and you should stay active throughout all stages of your life regardless of your body type or BMI. Understanding the benefits of physical fitness and knowing how active you should be can help you maintain good health and improve your overall quality of life. Here are a few benefits of regular physical activity that demonstrate the importance of physical fitness.

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Long-term health benefits of physical activity – a systematic review of longitudinal studies

Once production of your article has started, you can track the status of your article via Track Your Accepted Article. The Journal accepts original investigations, comprehensive reviews, case studies and short communications on current topics in exercise science, physical fitness and physical education. In partnership with the communities we serve; we redouble our deep commitment to inclusion and diversity within our editorial, author and reviewer networks. ISSN: X. Editor-in-Chief: Professor Stephen H. View Editorial Board.

IJSEM is a database for physicians, physical therapists, sports trainers, orthopedic surgeons specialized in exercise medicine. It focuses on the health-and-fitness information, psychology, sports nutrition, causes and effects of damage caused by athletic injury, its medication and rehabilitation. International Journal of Sports and Exercise medicine allows faster publication of high quality articles with the support of its eminent Editorial board members. All the articles pass through a dual review process in which two independent review comments followed by editor's decision will be considered to publish the article. IJSME ensures the maintenance of its standards by publishing the high quality, original and new advances in its field. ISSN: Editor-in-chief: J.

Это кольцо - обман. - Червь удвоил скорость! - крикнула Соши.  - Штрафная санкция. На центральном экране прямо под извещением об ошибке ВР представила зрителям ужасающую картину. По мере того как рушилась третья защитная стенка, полдюжины черных линий, эти хакеры-мародеры, устремлялись вперед, неуклонно продвигаясь к сердцевине. С каждым мгновением появлялась новая линия, а за ней - следующая.

American Heart Association Recommendations for Physical Activity in Adults and Kids

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Выходит, Стратмор был зрителем теннисного матча, следящим за мячом лишь на одной половине корта. Поскольку мяч возвращался, он решил, что с другой стороны находится второй игрок. Но Танкадо бил мячом об стенку.

4 Comments

Haroldo H.
27.03.2021 at 19:10 - Reply

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PDF | Regular Physical activity and exercise can help you stay healthy, International Journal of Physical Education, Sports and Health.

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To evaluate whether health-related quality-of-life measures can be improved in a senior population by increasing participation in an exercise program.

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