Difference Between Biography And Autobiography Pdf


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The two traditional forms of literature that describe the character sketch and course of the life of a person are biography and autobiography.

The Differences between Memoir, Autobiography, and Biography - article

A biography , or simply bio , is a detailed description of a person's life. It involves more than just the basic facts like education, work, relationships, and death; it portrays a person's experience of these life events. Biographical works are usually non-fiction , but fiction can also be used to portray a person's life. One in-depth form of biographical coverage is called legacy writing. Works in diverse media, from literature to film, form the genre known as biography.

An authorized biography is written with the permission, cooperation, and at times, participation of a subject or a subject's heirs.

An autobiography is written by the person himself or herself, sometimes with the assistance of a collaborator or ghostwriter.

At first, biographical writings were regarded merely as a subsection of history with a focus on a particular individual of historical importance.

The independent genre of biography as distinct from general history writing, began to emerge in the 18th century and reached its contemporary form at the turn of the 20th century. Longer and more extensive biographies were written in Greek by Plutarch , in his Parallel Lives , published about 80 A. In this work famous Greeks are paired with famous Romans, for example the orators Demosthenes and Cicero , or the generals Alexander the Great and Julius Caesar ; some fifty biographies from the work survive.

Another well-known collection of ancient biographies is De vita Caesarum "On the Lives of the Caesars" by Suetonius , written about AD in the time of the emperor Hadrian.

In the early Middle Ages AD to , there was a decline in awareness of the classical culture in Europe. During this time, the only repositories of knowledge and records of the early history in Europe were those of the Roman Catholic Church. Hermits , monks , and priests used this historic period to write biographies. Their subjects were usually restricted to the church fathers , martyrs , popes , and saints. Their works were meant to be inspirational to the people and vehicles for conversion to Christianity see Hagiography.

One significant secular example of a biography from this period is the life of Charlemagne by his courtier Einhard. In Medieval Islamic Civilization c. AD to , similar traditional Muslim biographies of Muhammad and other important figures in the early history of Islam began to be written, beginning the Prophetic biography tradition. Early biographical dictionaries were published as compendia of famous Islamic personalities from the 9th century onwards. They contained more social data for a large segment of the population than other works of that period.

The earliest biographical dictionaries initially focused on the lives of the prophets of Islam and their companions , with one of these early examples being The Book of The Major Classes by Ibn Sa'd al-Baghdadi. And then began the documentation of the lives of many other historical figures from rulers to scholars who lived in the medieval Islamic world. By the late Middle Ages, biographies became less church-oriented in Europe as biographies of kings , knights , and tyrants began to appear.

Following Malory, the new emphasis on humanism during the Renaissance promoted a focus on secular subjects, such as artists and poets, and encouraged writing in the vernacular. Giorgio Vasari 's Lives of the Artists was the landmark biography focusing on secular lives. Vasari made celebrities of his subjects, as the Lives became an early "bestseller". Two other developments are noteworthy: the development of the printing press in the 15th century and the gradual increase in literacy.

John Foxe 's Actes and Monuments , better known as Foxe's Book of Martyrs , was essentially the first dictionary of the biography in Europe, followed by Thomas Fuller 's The History of the Worthies of England , with a distinct focus on public life. Influential in shaping popular conceptions of pirates, A General History of the Pyrates , by Charles Johnson, is the prime source for the biographies of many well-known pirates.

A notable early collection of biographies of eminent men and women in the United Kingdom was Biographia Britannica edited by William Oldys. The American biography followed the English model, incorporating Thomas Carlyle 's view that biography was a part of history. Carlyle asserted that the lives of great human beings were essential to understanding society and its institutions. While the historical impulse would remain a strong element in early American biography, American writers carved out a distinct approach.

What emerged was a rather didactic form of biography, which sought to shape the individual character of a reader in the process of defining national character. The first modern biography, and a work which exerted considerable influence on the evolution of the genre, was James Boswell 's The Life of Samuel Johnson , a biography of lexicographer and man-of-letters Samuel Johnson published in While Boswell's personal acquaintance with his subject only began in , when Johnson was 54 years old, Boswell covered the entirety of Johnson's life by means of additional research.

Itself an important stage in the development of the modern genre of biography, it has been claimed to be the greatest biography written in the English language. Boswell's work was unique in its level of research, which involved archival study, eye-witness accounts and interviews, its robust and attractive narrative, and its honest depiction of all aspects of Johnson's life and character - a formula which serves as the basis of biographical literature to this day.

Biographical writing generally stagnated during the 19th century - in many cases there was a reversal to the more familiar hagiographical method of eulogizing the dead, similar to the biographies of saints produced in Medieval times.

A distinction between mass biography and literary biography began to form by the middle of the century, reflecting a breach between high culture and middle-class culture. However, the number of biographies in print experienced a rapid growth, thanks to an expanding reading public. This revolution in publishing made books available to a larger audience of readers. In addition, affordable paperback editions of popular biographies were published for the first time.

Periodicals began publishing a sequence of biographical sketches. Autobiographies became more popular, as with the rise of education and cheap printing, modern concepts of fame and celebrity began to develop. Autobiographies were written by authors, such as Charles Dickens who incorporated autobiographical elements in his novels and Anthony Trollope , his Autobiography appeared posthumously, quickly becoming a bestseller in London [11] , philosophers, such as John Stuart Mill , churchmen — John Henry Newman — and entertainers — P.

The sciences of psychology and sociology were ascendant at the turn of the 20th century and would heavily influence the new century's biographies. Human behavior would be explained through Darwinian theories. The development of psychoanalysis led to a more penetrating and comprehensive understanding of the biographical subject, and induced biographers to give more emphasis to childhood and adolescence.

Clearly these psychological ideas were changing the way biographies were written, as a culture of autobiography developed, in which the telling of one's own story became a form of therapy. British critic Lytton Strachey revolutionized the art of biographical writing with his work Eminent Victorians , consisting of biographies of four leading figures from the Victorian era : Cardinal Manning , Florence Nightingale , Thomas Arnold , and General Gordon.

His narrative demolished the myths that had built up around these cherished national heroes, whom he regarded as no better than a "set of mouth bungled hypocrites". The book achieved worldwide fame due to its irreverent and witty style, its concise and factually accurate nature, and its artistic prose. In the s and '30s, biographical writers sought to capitalize on Strachey's popularity by imitating his style.

Robert Graves I, Claudius , stood out among those following Strachey's model of "debunking biographies. This latter form's appeal to readers was based on curiosity more than morality or patriotism. By World War I , cheap hard-cover reprints had become popular. The decades of the s witnessed a biographical "boom. The feminist scholar Carolyn Heilbrun observed that women's biographies and autobiographies began to change character during the second wave of feminist activism.

She cited Nancy Milford's biography Zelda , as the "beginning of a new period of women's biography, because "[only] in were we ready to read not that Zelda had destroyed Fitzgerald , but Fitzgerald her: he had usurped her narrative. In recent years, multimedia biography has become more popular than traditional literary forms. Along with documentary biographical films , Hollywood produced numerous commercial films based on the lives of famous people.

CD-ROM and online biographies have also appeared. Unlike books and films, they often do not tell a chronological narrative: instead they are archives of many discrete media elements related to an individual person, including video clips, photographs, and text articles.

Biography-Portraits were created in , by the German artist Ralph Ueltzhoeffer. Media scholar Lev Manovich says that such archives exemplify the database form, allowing users to navigate the materials in many ways. In recent years, debates have arisen as to whether all biographies are fiction, especially when authors are writing about figures from the past. President of Wolfson College at Oxford University, Hermione Lee argues that all history is seen through a perspective that is the product of our contemporary society and as a result biographical truths are constantly shifting.

So the history biographers write about will not be the way that it happened; it will be the way they remembered it. Biographical research is defined by Miller as a research method that collects and analyses a person's whole life, or portion of a life, through the in-depth and unstructured interview, or sometimes reinforced by semi-structured interview or personal documents.

There are many largely unacknowledged pitfalls to writing good biographies, and these largely concern the relation between firstly the individual and the context, and, secondly, the private and public. Paul James writes:. The problems with such conventional biographies are manifold. Biographies usually treat the public as a reflection of the private, with the private realm being assumed to be foundational.

This is strange given that biographies are most often written about public people who project a persona. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Biography disambiguation. For the Wikipedia policy on biographies of living persons, see Wikipedia:Biographies of living persons.

Written account of a person's life. Biography portal Literature portal. BBC News. Retrieved 1 February The Guardian. Butler, Paul 19 April University of Mary Washington Libraries. Archived from the original on 11 November Casper, Scott E. Derham, Katie [First published in ]. MP4 Video. Institute of Arts and Ideas. Heilbrun, Carolyn G.

Writing a Woman's Life. New York: W. Hughes, Kathryn Journal of Historical Biography. Johnson, Charles London: Conway Maritime.

Difference between Biography and Autobiography

Biography vs. The three primary formats used to tell a life story are a biography, an autobiography, and a memoir. Distinguishing between the three can feel a bit confusing since they all share several similarities. But there are some distinct differences. Simply put, a biography is the life history of an individual, written by someone else. And a memoir is a collection of memories written by the person themselves.

Memoirs, autobiographies, and biographies are three ways to tell a non-fiction story generally about a specific person. The key word here is non-fiction. You can, of course, interview them and ask; however readers may not believe you. Out of the three styles of recounting the story of a specific person, this is the one that requires the most research. As the biographer, you are expected to know everything about the person you are writing about, and you are responsible for vetting your sources. Because a biography is about someone other than the author, a distant third person point of view is used. Biographies that do well tend to be about famous people.

There has always been a degree of uncertainty about the difference between biography and autobiography and memoir. You have to make sure the story flows impeccably, is accurate, has enough drama to be keep readers reading, and most importantly, is structured right. Not only are the three different in terms of tone, flow and context, but also how you publish and market your book to the relevant audience. Marketing under the wrong label falls under misrepresentation of facts — or the classic term i. It might not be a severe case of fraud, but might still make you susceptible to a lawsuit.

What are biography and autobiography?

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Difference Between Biography and Autobiography and Memoir

Autobiography vs. Biography vs. Memoir

A biography , or simply bio , is a detailed description of a person's life. It involves more than just the basic facts like education, work, relationships, and death; it portrays a person's experience of these life events. Biographical works are usually non-fiction , but fiction can also be used to portray a person's life. One in-depth form of biographical coverage is called legacy writing. Works in diverse media, from literature to film, form the genre known as biography.

Teachers Pay Teachers is an online marketplace where teachers buy and sell original educational materials. Are you getting the free resources, updates, and special offers we send out every week in our teacher newsletter? Grade Level. Resource Type.

Writing any type of nonfiction story can be a daunting task. As the author, you have the responsibility to tell a true story and share the facts as accurately as you can—while also making the experience enjoyable for the reader. There are three primary formats to tell a creative nonfiction story: memoir, autobiography, and biography. Told from the perspective of the author, memoirs are written in first person point of view.

Беккер двинулся по едва освещенному коридору. Все здесь напоминало зловещую декорацию к голливудскому фильму ужасов. В воздухе стоял тяжелый запах мочи. Лампочки в конце коридора не горели, и на протяжении последних двадцати метров можно было различать только смутные силуэты. Женщина с кровотечением… плачущая молодая пара… молящаяся маленькая девочка.

Сквозь отверстие в двери она увидела стол. Он все еще катился по инерции и вскоре исчез в темноте. Сьюзан нашла свои валявшиеся на ковре итальянские туфли, на мгновение оглянулась, увидела все еще корчившегося на полу Грега Хейла и бросилась бежать по усеянному стеклянным крошевом полу шифровалки. ГЛАВА 68 - Ну видишь, это совсем не трудно, - презрительно сказала Мидж, когда Бринкерхофф с видом побитой собаки протянул ей ключ от кабинета Фонтейна.

Мидж подошла к принтеру и, забрав распечатку очередности задач, попыталась просмотреть ее в темноте. - Ничего не вижу, - пожаловалась.  - Включи свет. - Прочитаешь за дверью. А теперь выходи.

Еще и собственная глупость. Он отдал Сьюзан свой пиджак, а вместе с ним - Скайпейджер. Теперь уже окаменел Стратмор. Рука Сьюзан задрожала, и пейджер упал на пол возле тела Хейла. Сьюзан прошла мимо него с поразившим его выражением человека, потрясенного предательством.

 - Я уже раньше объяснял вам, что занят диагностикой особого рода. Цепная мутация, которую вы обнаружили в ТРАНСТЕКСТЕ, является частью этой диагностики. Она там, потому что я ее туда запустил.

 Убирайся к дьяволу! - завопил панк, видя, что над ним все смеются.  - Подтирка для задницы. Беккер не шелохнулся.

5 Comments

Raquildis M.
26.03.2021 at 23:38 - Reply

So what is the difference between them and which type of writing should you choose when you feel up for such reading?

Meritxell S.
27.03.2021 at 13:27 - Reply

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Zanarkand M.
28.03.2021 at 15:12 - Reply

is the life history of an individual, written by someone else, whereas the.

Laura C.
28.03.2021 at 19:25 - Reply

A biography is simply an account or detailed description about the life of a person.

Didio M.
29.03.2021 at 00:49 - Reply

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