Architecture Timeline Historical Periods And Styles PdfBy Juventino C. In and pdf 24.03.2021 at 18:01 8 min read
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Western architecture , history of Western architecture from prehistoric Mediterranean cultures to the present. The history of Western architecture is marked by a series of new solutions to structural problems. During the period from the beginning of civilization through ancient Greek culture , construction methods progressed from the most primitive shed roof and simple truss to the vertical posts, or columns , supporting horizontal beams, or lintels see post-and-lintel system.
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The history of architecture is about as long as the history of humanity itself, and probably just as complex. The exact origin of architecture could be said to date to the Neolithic period, around 10 BC, or simply when people stopped living in caves and started handling the way they want their houses to look and feel like.
Architecture Timeline -Historic Periods and Styles of the West
During the High Renaissance, architectural concepts derived from classical antiquity were developed and used with greater surety. Name some distinguishing features of Italian Renaissance architecture, its major exponents, and important architectural concepts. Renaissance architecture is European architecture between the early 15th and early 17th centuries.
It demonstrates a conscious revival and development of certain elements of classical thought and material culture , particularly symmetry and classical orders. Stylistically, Renaissance architecture came after the Gothic period and was succeeded by the Baroque. During the High Renaissance , architectural concepts derived from classical antiquity were developed and used with greater surety. The most representative architect of Italian Renaissance Architecture is Bramante — , who developed the applicability of classical architectural elements to contemporary buildings, a style that was to dominate Italian architecture in the 16th century.
In the late 15th century and early 16th century architects such as Bramante, Antonio da Sangallo the Younger, and others showed a mastery of the revived style and ability to apply it to buildings such as churches and city palazzos, which were quite different from the structures of ancient times.
Although studying and mastering the details of the ancient Romans was one of the important aspects of Renaissance architectural theory, the style also became more decorative and ornamental, with a widespread use of statuary, domes, and cupolas. Renaissance architecture adopted obvious distinguishing features of classical Roman architecture. However, the forms and purposes of buildings had changed over time, as had the structure of cities, which is reflected in the resulting fusion of classical and 16th century forms.
The plans of Renaissance buildings typically have a square, symmetrical appearance in which proportions are usually based on a module. The primary features of 16th century structures, which fused classical Roman technique with Renaissance aesthetics, were based in several foundational architectural concepts: facades, columns and pilasters, arches, vaults, domes, windows, and walls.
The columns and windows show a progression towards the center. Renaissance architects also incorporated columns and pilasters, using the Roman orders of columns Tuscan, Doric, Ionic, Corinthian, and Composite as models.
The orders can either be structural, supporting an arcade or architrave , or purely decorative, set against a wall in the form of pilasters.
During the Renaissance, architects aimed to use columns, pilasters, and entablatures as an integrated system. One of the first buildings to use pilasters as an integrated system was the Old Sacristy — by Brunelleschi. The dome is used frequently in this period, both as a very large structural feature that is visible from the exterior, and also as a means of roofing smaller spaces where they are only visible internally.
Domes were used in important structures such as the Pantheon during antiquity, but had been used only rarely in the Middle Ages. Dome of St. Windows may be paired and set within a semicircular arch and may have square lintels and triangular or segmental pediments, which are often used alternately.
Emblematic in this respect is the Palazzo Farnese in Rome, begun in Windows were used to bring light into the building and in domestic architecture, to show the view. Stained glass, although sometimes present, was not a prevalent feature in Renaissance windows.
Finally, external Renaissance walls were generally of highly finished ashlar masonry, laid in straight courses. The corners of buildings were often emphasized by rusticated quoins. Basements and ground floors were sometimes rusticated, as modeled on the Palazzo Medici Riccardi — in Florence. Internal walls were smoothly plastered and surfaced with white chalk paint.
For more formal spaces, internal surfaces were typically decorated with frescoes. Renaissance architecture first developed in Florence in the 15th century and represented a conscious revival of classical styles. The Quattrocento , or the 15th century in Florence, was marked by the development of the Renaissance style of architecture, which represented a conscious revival and development of ancient Greek and Roman architectural elements.
The rules of Renaissance architecture were first formulated and put into practice in 15th century Florence, whose buildings subsequently served as an inspiration to architects throughout Italy and Western Europe. The Renaissance style of architecture emerged in Florence not as a slow evolution from preceding styles, but rather as a conscious development put into motion by architects seeking to revive a golden age.
These architects were sponsored by wealthy patrons including the powerful Medici family and the Silk Guild , and approached their craft from an organized and scholarly perspective that coincided with a general revival of classical learning.
The Renaissance style deliberately eschewed the complex proportional systems and irregular profiles of Gothic structures. Instead, Renaissance architects placed emphasis on symmetry, proportion, geometry, and regularity of parts as demonstrated in classical Roman architecture.
They also made considerable use of classical antique features such as orderly arrangements of columns, pilasters, lintels, semicircular arches, and hemispherical domes.
The person generally credited with originating the Renaissance style of architecture is Filippo Brunelleschi — , whose first major commission—the enormous brick dome that covers the central space of the Florence Cathedral—was also perhaps architecturally the most significant. Known as the Duomo, the dome was engineered by Brunelleschi to cover a spanning in the already existing Cathedral.
The dome retains the Gothic pointed arch and the Gothic ribs in its design. The dome is structurally influenced by the great domes of Ancient Rome such as the Pantheon , and it is often described as the first building of the Renaissance. The dome is made of red brick and was ingeniously constructed without supports, using a deep understanding of the laws of physics and mathematics. It remains the largest masonry dome in the world and was such an unprecedented success at its time that the dome became an indispensable element in church and even secular architecture thereafter.
Duomo of Florence : The Florence Cathedral is the first example of a true dome in Renaissance architecture. Another key figure in the development of Renaissance architecture in Florence was Leon Battista Alberti — , an important Humanist theoretician and designer, whose book on architecture De re aedificatoria was the first architectural treatise of the Renaissance.
The Palazzo Rucellai, a palatial townhouse built —51, typified the newly developing features of Renaissance architecture, including a classical ordering of columns over three levels and the use of pilasters and entablatures in proportional relationship to each other.
The facade of Santa Maria Novella —70 also showed similar Renaissance innovations based on classical Roman architecture. Alberti attempted to bring the ideals of humanist architecture and proportion to the already existing structure while creating harmony with the existing medieval facade. His contributions included a classically inspired frieze decorated with squares, four white-green pilasters, and a round window crowned by a pediment with the Dominican solar emblem and flanked on both sides by S-shaped scrolls.
While the pediment and the frieze were inspired by classical architecture, the scrolls were new and without precedent in antiquity, and ended up becoming a very popular architectural feature in churches all over Italy. The buildings of the early Renaissance in Florence expressed a new sense of light, clarity, and spaciousness that reflected the enlightenment and clarity of mind glorified by the philosophy of Humanism.
Rome, the second Renaissance capital after Florence, was one of the most important architectural and cultural centers during this period. Roman Renaissance architects derived their main designs and inspirations from classical models.
The style of Roman Renaissance architecture does not greatly differ from what may be observed in Florence Renaissance architecture. However, patrons in Rome tended to be important officials of the Catholic Church, and buildings are generally religious or palatial in function. Donato Bramante — was a key figure in Roman architecture during the High Renaissance.
Bramante was born in Urbino and first came to prominence as an architect in Milan before traveling to Rome. In Rome, Bramante was commissioned by Ferdinand and Isabella to design the Tempietto, a temple that marks what was believed to be the exact spot where Saint Peter was martyred.
The temple is circular, similar to early Christian martyriums, and much of the design is inspired by the remains of the ancient Temple Vesta. The Tempietto is considered by many scholars to be the premier example of High Renaissance architecture. With its perfect proportions, harmony of parts, and direct references to ancient architecture, the Tempietto embodies the Renaissance.
The Tempietto, c. Its building history involved some of the most prominent Italian architects of the 16th century, including Michelangelo, Jacopo Barozzi da Vignola, and Giacomo della Porta.
Michelangelo revised the central window in , adding an architrave to give a central focus to the facade, above which is the largest papal stemma, or coat-of-arms with papal tiara, Rome had ever seen. The Palazzo Farnese courtyard, initially open arcades , is ringed by classically inspired columns characteristic of Italian Renaissance architecture , in ascending orders Doric, Corinthian, and Ionic.
The piano nobile entablature was given a frieze with garlands, added by Michelangelo. On the garden side of the palace, which faced the River Tiber, Michelangelo proposed the innovatory design of a bridge which, if completed, would have linked the palace with the gardens of the Vigna Farnese.
While the practicalities of achieving this bridge remained dubious, the idea was a bold and expansive one. During the 16th century, two large granite basins from the Baths of Caracalla were adapted as fountains in the Piazza Farnese, the urban face of the palace. Following the death of Cardinal Odoardo Farnese in , the palazzo stood virtually uninhabited for 20 years. In the Veneto, the Renaissance ushered in a new era of architecture after a Gothic phase, which drew on classical Roman and Greek motifs.
Describe the style of Venetian architecture during the Renaissance, and of Palladio in particular. Venice, the capital of the Veneto, has a rich and diverse architectural style , the most famous of which is the Gothic style. Venetian Gothic architecture is a term given to a Venetian building style combining use of the Gothic lancet arch with Byzantine and Ottoman influences.
The style originated in 14thcentury Venice, where the confluence of Byzantine style from Constantinople met Arab influence from Moorish Spain. This phase of architecture demonstrates how Gothic and Byzantine influences lingered much longer in Venice than they did in Florence or Rome during the Renaissance.
Later architecture in Venice and the Veneto was largely based on the work of Andrea Palladio, who designed and completed some highly influential works, including villas in the mainland, Vicenza, Padua, and Treviso. Palladian architecture, in masterpieces such as Villa Emo, Villa Barbaro, Villa Capra, and Villa Foscari, evoked the imagined grandeur of antique classical Roman villas.
For instance, Palladian villas were designed so that the owner visibly exerted control over production activities of the surrounding countryside by structuring the functional parts, such as the porch, close to the central body. In the case of Villa Badoer, the open barn, formed by a large circular colonnade enclosing the front yard in front of the villa, created a space that recalled the ancient idea of the Roman Forum , bringing all campaign activities to the front of the villa itself.
Learning Objectives Name some distinguishing features of Italian Renaissance architecture, its major exponents, and important architectural concepts. Key Takeaways Key Points Renaissance architecture adopted distinguishing features of classical Roman architecture. However, the forms and purposes of buildings had changed over time, as had the structure of cities, which is reflected in the fusion of classical and 16th century forms.
The primary features of 16th century structures, which fused classical Roman technique with Renaissance aesthetics , were based in several foundational architectural concepts: facades, columns and pilasters , arches , vaults , domes , windows, and walls. Key Terms pediment : A classical architectural element consisting of a triangular section or gable found above the horizontal superstructure entablature which lies immediately upon the columns.
Renaissance Architecture : Renaissance architecture is the architecture of the period between the early 15th and early 17th centuries in different regions of Europe, demonstrating a conscious revival and development of certain elements of ancient Greek and Roman thought and material culture.
Stylistically, Renaissance architecture followed Gothic architecture and was succeeded by Baroque architecture. Renaissance Architecture in Florence Renaissance architecture first developed in Florence in the 15th century and represented a conscious revival of classical styles. Learning Objectives Define the importance and specific style of 15th century Florentine architecture.
Key Takeaways Key Points The Renaissance style of architecture emerged in Florence not as a slow evolution from preceding styles, but rather as a conscious development put into motion by architects seeking to revive the golden age of classical antiquity.
When did Western architecture begin? Long before the magnificent structures of ancient Greece and Rome, humans were designing and constructing. The period known as the Classical Era grew from ideas and construction techniques that evolved centuries and eons apart in distant locations. This review illustrates how each new movement builds on the one before. Although our timeline lists dates related mostly to American architecture, historic periods do not start and stop at precise points on a map or a calendar. Periods and styles flow together, sometimes merging contradictory ideas, sometimes inventing new approaches, and often re-awakening and re-inventing older movements. Dates are always approximate—architecture is a fluid art.
During the High Renaissance, architectural concepts derived from classical antiquity were developed and used with greater surety. Name some distinguishing features of Italian Renaissance architecture, its major exponents, and important architectural concepts. Renaissance architecture is European architecture between the early 15th and early 17th centuries. It demonstrates a conscious revival and development of certain elements of classical thought and material culture , particularly symmetry and classical orders. Stylistically, Renaissance architecture came after the Gothic period and was succeeded by the Baroque. During the High Renaissance , architectural concepts derived from classical antiquity were developed and used with greater surety. The most representative architect of Italian Renaissance Architecture is Bramante — , who developed the applicability of classical architectural elements to contemporary buildings, a style that was to dominate Italian architecture in the 16th century.
Architecture Timeline - Western Influences on Building Design. The Evolution of Classical Style Architecture. Share.
CRITICAL ARCHITECTURE : TIMELINE
This way of teaching has often left out grand historical narratives, and focused primarily on the occidental world. Therefore, we present some of the most influential architectural styles and movements in history, its features, and singularities. Classical architecture was constructed in Ancient Greece between the 7th and 4th century BC.
history of architecture timeline pdf
History of architecture can be traced back to the beginning of human civilization, even before that. Written well before the greatest achievements of the Roman builders, this treatise is the most influential text in the entire history of architecture. Paper Orientation. The history of architecture is a study of expression through the use of created spaces. Colonial Era - The exact origin of architecture could be said to date to the Neolithic period, around 10 BC, or simply when people stopped living in caves and started handling the way they want their houses to look and feel like.
An architectural style is characterized by the features that make a building or other structure notable and historically identifiable. A style may include such elements as form , method of construction , building materials , and regional character. Most architecture can be classified as a chronology of styles which change over time reflecting changing fashions, beliefs and religions, or the emergence of new ideas, technology, or materials which make new styles possible. Styles therefore emerge from the history of a society and are documented in the subject of architectural history. At any time several styles may be fashionable, and when a style changes it usually does so gradually, as architects learn and adapt to new ideas.
Эй! - услышал он за спиной сердитый женский голос и чуть не подпрыгнул от неожиданности. - Я… я… прошу прощения, - заикаясь, сказал Беккер и застегнул молнию на брюках. Повернувшись, он увидел вошедшую в туалет девушку. Молоденькая, изысканной внешности, ну прямо сошла со страниц журнала Севентин. Довольно консервативные брюки в клетку, белая блузка без рукавов.
Он ездил на белом лотосе с люком на крыше и звуковой системой с мощными динамиками. Кроме того, он был фанатом всевозможных прибамбасов, и его автомобиль стал своего рода витриной: он установил в нем компьютерную систему глобального позиционирования, замки, приводящиеся в действие голосом, пятиконечный подавитель радаров и сотовый телефонфакс, благодаря которому всегда мог принимать сообщения на автоответчик. На номерном знаке авто была надпись МЕГАБАЙТ в обрамлении сиреневой неоновой трубки.
Коммандера удивил ее вопрос. - Нет.
Их компьютер через Интерпол засек имя Танкадо в регистратуре полиции Севильи. - От разрыва сердца? - усомнилась Сьюзан. - Ему ведь всего тридцать лет.