Factors That Affect Community Health And Development Notes PdfBy Linette B. In and pdf 24.03.2021 at 08:33 8 min read
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From the quality of the air you breathe to the condition of the roads you drive on, environmental factors can have a major influence on your health. Professionals in the environmental health field examine how people interact with the world around them, chronicling the many ways that these interactions can impact physical fitness, vulnerability to disease, and other aspects of human wellness. Through strategic efforts to improve environmental health, public health professionals can enhance personal wellness for individuals, families, and communities.
- Frequently Asked Questions
- Community health
- Rural Health Information Hub
- Social and Cultural Factors that Can Influence Your Health
Frequently Asked Questions
Community health is a branch of public health which focuses on people and their role as determinants of their own and other people's health in contrast to environmental health , which focuses on the physical environment and its impact on people's health. Community health is a major field of study within the medical and clinical sciences which focuses on the maintenance, protection, and improvement of the health status of population groups and communities.
It is a distinct field of study that may be taught within a separate school of public health or environmental health. The WHO defines community health as:. Medical interventions that occur in communities can be classified as three categories: primary care , secondary care , and tertiary care. Each category focuses on a different level and approach towards the community or population group. In the United States , community health is rooted within primary healthcare achievements.
Secondary healthcare is related to "hospital care" where acute care is administered in a hospital department setting. Tertiary healthcare refers to highly specialized care usually involving disease or disability management. The success of community health programmes relies upon the transfer of information from health professionals to the general public using one-to-one or one to many communication mass communication.
The latest shift is towards health marketing. Community health is generally measured by geographical information systems and demographic data. Geographic information systems can be used to define sub-communities when neighborhood location data is not enough. Geographical information systems GIS can give more precise information of community resources, even at neighborhood levels.
Social media can also play a big role in health information analytics. Community based health promotion emphasizes primary prevention and population based perspective traditional prevention. Primary healthcare is provided by health professionals , specifically the ones a patient sees first that may refer them to secondary or tertiary care.
Primary prevention refers to the early avoidance and identification of risk factors that may lead to certain diseases and disabilities.
Community focused efforts including immunizations , classroom teaching, and awareness campaigns are all good examples of how primary prevention techniques are utilized by communities to change certain health behaviors. Prevention programs, if carefully designed and drafted, can effectively prevent problems that children and adolescents face as they grow up. Prevention programs are one of the most effective tools health professionals can use to significantly impact individual, population, and community health.
Community health can also be improved with improvements in individuals' environments. Community health status is determined by the environmental characteristics, behavioral characteristics, social cohesion in the environment of that community.
Secondary prevention refers to improvements made in a patient's lifestyle or environment after the onset of disease or disability. This sort of prevention works to make life easier for the patient, since it's too late to prevent them from their current disease or disability.
An example of secondary prevention is when those with occupational low back pain are provided with strategies to stop their health status from worsening; the prospects of secondary prevention may even hold more promise than primary prevention in this case. While they are not directly life-threatening, they place a significant burden on daily lives, affecting quality of life for the individual, their families, and the communities they live in, both socially and financially.
With steadily growing numbers, many community healthcare providers have developed self-management programs to assist patients in properly managing their own behavior as well as making adequate decisions about their lifestyle.
Furthermore, better self-monitoring skills can help patients effectively and efficiently make better use of healthcare professionals' time, which can result in better care.
No significant differences have been reported comparing the effectiveness of both peer-led versus professional led self-management programs. There has been a lot of debate regarding the effectiveness of these programs and how well they influence patient behavior and understanding their own health conditions. Some studies argue that self-management programs are effective in improving patient quality of life and decreasing healthcare expenditures and hospital visits.
A study assessed health statuses through healthcare resource utilizations and self-management outcomes after 1 and 2 years to determine the effectiveness of chronic disease self-management programs.
After analyzing patients diagnosed with various types of chronic conditions, including heart disease, stroke, and arthritis, the study found that after the 2 years, there was a significant improvement in health status and fewer emergency department and physician visits also significant after 1 year.
They concluded that these low-cost self-management programs allowed for less healthcare utilization as well as an improvement in overall patient health. They observed similar patterns, such as an improvement in health status, reduced number of visits to the emergency department and to physicians, shorter hospital visits. They concluded that self-management programs for both diabetes and hypertension produced clinically significant benefits to overall health.
On the other hand, there are a few studies measuring little significance of the effectiveness of chronic disease self-management programs. In the previous study in Australia, there was no clinical significance in the health benefits of osteoarthritis self-management programs and cost-effectiveness of all of these programs. Some programs are looking to integrate self-management programs into the traditional healthcare system, specifically primary care, as a way to incorporate behavioral improvements and decrease the increased patient visits with chronic diseases.
Possible limitations of chronic disease self-management education programs include the following: . In tertiary healthcare , community health can only be affected with professional medical care involving the entire population. Patients need to be referred to specialists and undergo advanced medical treatment. In some countries, there are more sub-specialties of medical professions than there are primary care specialists.
The complexity of community health and its various problems can make it difficult for researchers to assess and identify solutions. Community-based participatory research CBPR is a unique alternative that combines community participation, inquiry, and action.
Other issues involve access and cost of medical care. A great majority of the world does not have adequate health insurance. In the United States , the Affordable Care Act ACA changed the way community health centers operate and the policies that were in place, greatly influencing community health. Ethnic disparities in health statuses among different communities is also a cause of concern. Community coalition-driven interventions may bring benefits to this segment of society.
Access to community health in the Global South is influenced by geographic accessibility physical distance from the service delivery point to the user , availability proper type of care, service provider, and materials , financial accessibility willingness and ability of users to purchase services , and acceptability responsiveness of providers to social and cultural norms of users and their communities.
Private providers that serve low-income communities are often unqualified and untrained. Some policymakers recommend that governments in developing countries harness private providers to remove state responsibility from service provision. Community development is frequently used as a public health intervention to empower communities to obtain self-reliance and control over the factors that affect their health.
Slum-dwellers in the Global South face threats of infectious disease, non-communicable conditions, and injuries due to violence and road traffic accidents.
Efforts have been made to involve the urban poor in project and policy design and implementation. Through slum upgrading, states recognize and acknowledge the rights of the urban poor and the need to deliver basic services. Upgrading can vary from small-scale sector-specific projects i. Other projects combine environmental interactions with social programs and political empowerment.
Recently, slum upgrading projects have been incremental to prevent the displacement of residents during improvements and attentive to emerging concerns regarding climate change adaptation. By legitimizing slum-dwellers and their right to remain, slum upgrading is an alternative to slum removal and a process that in itself may address the structural determinants of population health.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Part of a series on Public health Subfields of public health. Behavioral health Community health Environmental health Health economics Health education Health policy Health politics Sexual and reproductive health. Lists and categories. Terminology Journals National public health agencies. This section may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality standards.
The specific problem is: style, flow Please help improve this section if you can. May Learn how and when to remove this template message. See also: Cultural competence in healthcare. Health Promotion. May Examining the meaning of an evolving field in public health". Preventive Medicine. Mpofu, Elias.
New York, NY. Introduction to Evaluation Community Tool Box". Retrieved Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health. Health Promotion Practice.
Cartography and Geographic Information Science. American Journal of Public Health. Principles of effective prevention programs". The American Psychologist. New York: Oxford University Press.
Part II: What do we know about secondary prevention? A review of the scientific evidence on prevention after disability begins". Annals of Internal Medicine. Archives of Internal Medicine. BMJ Open. January Medical Care. Medical Journal of Australia. November Effective Clinical Practice. Health Care Management Review. Journal of Urban Health. World health statistics.
The term "community health" refers to the health status of a defined group of people, or community, and the actions and conditions that protect and improve the health of the community. Those individuals who make up a community live in a somewhat localized area under the same general regulations, norms, values, and organizations. For example, the health status of the people living in a particular town, and the actions taken to protect and improve the health of these residents, would constitute community health. In the past, most individuals could be identified with a community in either a geographical or an organizational sense. Today, however, with expanding global economies, rapid transportation, and instant communication, communities alone no longer have the resources to control or look after all the needs of their residents or constituents. Thus the term "population health" has emerged. Population health differs from community health only in the scope of people it might address.
Rural Health Information Hub
Community health is a branch of public health which focuses on people and their role as determinants of their own and other people's health in contrast to environmental health , which focuses on the physical environment and its impact on people's health. Community health is a major field of study within the medical and clinical sciences which focuses on the maintenance, protection, and improvement of the health status of population groups and communities. It is a distinct field of study that may be taught within a separate school of public health or environmental health.
Health promotion and disease prevention programs focus on keeping people healthy. Health promotion programs aim to engage and empower individuals and communities to choose healthy behaviors, and make changes that reduce the risk of developing chronic diseases and other morbidities. Defined by the World Health Organization , health promotion:.
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. This chapter will address those factors.
Social and Cultural Factors that Can Influence Your Health
There are many factors that influence our health. These are called determinants of health. One kind of determinant of health is what is in our genes and our biology.
Health equity can be defined in several ways. Department of Health and Human Services defines health equity as attainment of the highest level of health for all people. Achieving health equity requires valuing everyone equally with focused and ongoing societal efforts to address avoidable inequalities, historical and contemporary injustices, and the elimination of health and healthcare disparities. Health is influenced by many factors, which may generally be organized into five broad categories known as determinants of health: genetics, behavior, environmental and physical influences, medical care and social factors. These five categories are interconnected.
Factors affecting health, the social and economic conditions in which people are born goglc.org%20Your%20Wheels%20Update_final_janpdf wellbeing may suffer (Human Resources and Skills Development Canada, ). The ongoing work of the Healthy Communities Initiative to improve access to.
Determinants Of Health
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