Low Impact Development And Sustainable Stormwater Management PdfBy Chloe K. In and pdf 20.03.2021 at 04:31 8 min read
File Name: low impact development and sustainable stormwater management .zip
- Urban Runoff: Low Impact Development
- Stormwater management: Low-impact development and green infrastructure
- City of Santa Cruz
This module reviews some of the complex issues of urban stormwater management. It first examines the hydrological issues affecting the discharge of stormwater runoff to our urban rivers and streams, and then provides an overview of how urban stormwater is managed under the Clean Water Act. It is an especially important component of the hydrological cycle in urban areas, since it can cause both pollution and flooding risks to nearby waterways and their adjacent communities.
Urban Runoff: Low Impact Development
Due to the increasing population, most of the cities are more developing which results in the change of natural area into impervious areas roads, buildings etc. Moreover, urbanization and climate change are causing many water-related problems and making over cities unsafe and insecure. Under these circumstances, there is a need to introduce new stormwater management practices into developed cities to reduce the adverse impacts of urbanization.
For this purpose, retrofitting low impact development practices demands more attention to reduce these water-related problems and trying to make our cities sustainable. In developed areas, there is a little space is available for the retrofitting of LID practices for the stormwater management. Therefore, the selection of an appropriate place to retrofitting LID practices needs more concern.
This paper describes the successfully applied retrofitting LID practices around the globe. It also includes the process of applying retrofitting LID practices at the suitable place with the suitable combination.
Optimal places for the retrofitting of different LID practices are also mentioned. This paper also highlights the barriers and potential solutions of retrofitting LID practices in urban areas. Due to the rapid urbanization around the world, the natural land covers are changing into impervious surfaces and degrading the natural environment.
These adverse effects include the increase runoff and peak flows that cause flash flooding and water quality degradation and other water related problems . In addition, climate change is another big challenge that is making our cities vulnerable. Applications of the Low impact development LID practices are proved as the sustainable solutions to mitigate the adverse effects of urbanization and to retrieve the natural hydrology of urban areas [ 2 , 3 ].
Moreover, retrofitting of Low impact development LID or Green infrastructure GI practices have been introduced which are becoming the most propitious practices; these practices have the ability to reduce the adverse impacts of urbanization on the natural landscape [ 1 — 3 ].
LID practices benefits include the reducing the pollutants from runoff, decreasing the heat island phenomena and enhancing the infiltration [ 4 , 5 ]. These practices reuse the urban water through the collection and infiltration; this is the key process of the urban hydrology, as it is close to the natural water cycle . Another advantage of LID practices is the ability to collect a large amount of runoff and to reduce it through infiltration and evaporation .
As a result of this, the flash flooding and other water-related problems are reduced . And if we want to treat this sewage water then we can use the big water treatment plants which significantly increase the cost. The traditional method pipes and gutters of controlling runoff is causing many problems. For example, during the big storm events, the volume of the stormwater can exceed the capacity of the system, that results in the overflow of sewage water into nearby lake or river known as combined sewer overflow CSO .
This is especially true in the areas where the stormwater is handled through the combined system. These traditional methods of handling stormwater adversely affect the water quality of large scale and affect the social, environmental and economic benefits.
The traditional method only considers the quantity control of stormwater rather than other social and environmental aspects. While on the other hand, LID practices have a potential for controlling the runoff, enhancing water quality and trying to change the grey infrastructure into green infrastructure [ 10 , 11 ].
In urban areas, the biggest challenge is the limited space available for the application of LID practice. Retrofitting LID practices is an alternative option to handle the water related problems and make our cities safe and sustainable.
These practices reduced the rainfall runoff by collecting, infiltrating, evaporating near the source that makes it possible to avoid the overflow events. Retrofitting LID practices consider in multiple way i.
Urban cities already developed; most of the natural land is converted into the impervious surfaces. Under these conditions, retrofitting LID practices is an option to change our grey infrastructure into green infrastructure. This will not only result to solve water related problems but also make our cities safe, sustainable and resilient to climate change.
Figure 1 , shows that grey infrastructure majorly concern to control the runoff quantity rather than quality and amenity values. The runoff is collected through the pipes and throws to the far off places. On the contrary, the green city gives equal importance to quantity, quality and amenity values. Difference between grey city and green city . Little information is available that concern to find the optimum place for retrofit LID practices in urban areas [ 2 , 14 , 46 ]. This paper describes the low impact development practices basic functions and benefits of the retrofitting LID practices in urban areas.
Optimal places to get multiple benefits by retrofitting LID practices are also included. At the end, barriers for implanting LID practices and potential solutions are also indicated. LID practices are the innovative stormwater management practices that had shown many benefits in different regions all around the world [ 1 , 3 , 14 ]. These practices handle the stormwater through small decentralize practices. LID practices include green roofs, blue roofs, Bioswales, Bioretention, rain barrel, pervious pavement, and tree box planter [ 4 , 44 , 62 ].
Retrofitting LID practices are providing financial, social and environmental benefits in a developed urban area and trying to make it safe and sustainable. Urban areas are complicated areas, as they consist of many complicated structures so the retrofitting, LID practices require special consideration for the selection of appropriate LID practices as well as the place.
Therefore, first of all, user should know about the basic function of each LID practices to apply it at the appropriate place for multiple benefits. To understand each LID practices basic functions they can be divided into following two categories.
Tablet shows the categories of LID practices on the basic of their function. These LID practices can apply to the areas where there is need to store the water rather than infiltration into the soil ground. The optimal places to apply storage LID practices are roof areas, ground areas above the underground rooms or parking lots.
Examples of storage LID practices are blue roofs, green roofs, roof garden, rain barrels, permeable pavements above the parking lot and grass swale above the basement rooms. This group LID practices are explained as given below. Green roofs are the vegetated roof that consisted of different types of vegetations, can be applied to new construction or retrofitting options at residential, commercial or industrial. While applying the green roof, the structural requirements such as the weight of the additional roof on the structure and slope should be considered .
These types of roofs have the ability to retain and detain the large amount of the rainwater that helps enhance the air quality, water quality, to reduce flooding and heat island phenomena in urban areas [ 14 — 17 ].
Blue roof are the temporary storage type roof, this kind of roof has the ability to detain the stormwater during storm events . Blue roofs are now implementing into the big project all around the world because it is cost effective and easy for the retrofitting options. Rain barrel and cistern are simple structures that are capable of collecting and storing the water for later use .
A rain barrel can be constructed in two days, the simple one can be a just a barrel having a screen at the top to keep out debris placed under the downspout near the building, but other more complex system according to the requirements can be constructed.
They can be constructed above or underground, near inside or outside the building with different capacities to collect water. Rain barrels are the best management practices because they are easy to apply, keep water out from the sewer system and reduce the water demand and stormwater management costs .
The evidence of this is that the City of Chicago is estimated to have diverted almost 8. Blue roof is the non-vegetated source control that use to retain the storm water for the longer duration.
This type of roof also called as reservoir type roof because it has temporary storage up to a certain height to stormwater. This roof types can collect the stormwater on the roof for longer duration that results in reducing the peak flow in the urban area. Shafique et al. They analyzed the results during different storm events to check the performance the blue roof to control the stormwater.
During the storm events of September , the results showed that the rainwater runoff from blue roof was 0. This shows that the blue roof as very helpful LID practices to collect the storm water for longer duration in urban areas. Other LID practices such as permeable pavements above the parking lot and grass swale above the basement rooms commonly used where we only need to collect the stormwater. In these two cases, the water cannot infiltrate into the ground because there is a structure available.
These two practices we can apply at the suitable places to control the runoff and to reduce the flash flooding problems in highly developed urban areas. This group of LID practices has storage as well as infiltration function.
LID practices in this group can retain and infiltrate the runoff water into the ground refer to Table 1. Different LID practices that already applied at different areas around the globe are explained below which can provide the information about benefits of these facilities.
These above-mentioned LID practices can be applied new and retrofitted in existing areas. Bioretention system also called as rain gardens are the depressed landscape features designed for the rainfall runoff treatment and storage at the site . Bioretention is a little complex system but has proven to be an effective system for the managing a large amount of stormwater runoff volumes and enhancing the water quality .
Rain garden reducing the runoff and peak flow as well as it can aesthetically improve the nearby area by providing the trees and plants . Pervious pavements referred to the pavements types that can infiltrate the water through the pores in the pavements and reduce the runoff.
Permeable pavements can be an effective method to reduce or eliminate a large amount of runoff in an area . In impervious surface such as roads, roofs, buildings the amount surface runoff is closely following by rainfall rates during the storm events . On Contrary, the permeable pavements allow the water to infiltrate into the ground, which can reduce the chances of flash flooding .
Permeable pavements require special maintenance after the construction to achieve its longterm goals, although in the cold climates permeable pavements may require fewer maintenance costs as compared to the impervious pavements winter costs .
Grass swales are the landscape features that are using for the different purposes such as to decrease runoff by infiltrating into the ground, moving to the other place and improving the stormwater quality. Grass swale has different slope and erosion control material that make it more functional . This stormwater management practice reduces the gutters and curbs costs as compared to the conventional stormwater management .
There are different infiltration swale systems that include grass swale, filter strips or biofilter, bioswale. Grass swales are the cost effective GI practices for the stormwater management in the urban areas.
These practices can easily set along the roadways, highways and park lots. Tree box filters are the in-ground containers usually contained the street trees in urban areas .
Runoff of nearby area is diverted to the tree box, where it is collected and infiltrate into the ground. This system adapts the bioretention principle to control runoff and to enhance the filtered water quality. This system is easy to construct and to maintain. There are also more two possible options such infiltration trench and porous infiltration pipe; can also use for the stormwater management in urban areas.
These two practices have ability to collect stormwater and infiltrate into the ground [ 2 , 11]. These practices can be applied near the garden areas where they can control the runoff and infiltrate into the ground. These practices can easily apply where we there is a less space available to apply the LID practices.
Stormwater management: Low-impact development and green infrastructure
Increasing urbanization puts pressure on centralized stormwater systems, which are expensive to expand and focused on just one task—conveying stormwater to a treatment plant. In addition, many older cities have combined sewers that convey both sewage and stormwater; they were a significant improvement over the above-ground sewer ditches that existed before combined sewer systems were created in the mids, but many combined sewers discharge harmful waste when storms overload the system Tibbetts, Green infrastructure projects—such as green roofs or eco-roofs , bioswales, permeable surfaces, and rain gardens—are decentralized approaches that may generate multiple benefits such as the reduction of urban water pollution, provision of open space, reduction of air pollution, and improvements in human health. This article describes new approaches being used to control urban stormwater on public and private property, discusses insights from economic theory about optimal stormwater policy design, and provides examples of projects being implemented in several U. Many terms are used in discussions of modern stormwater management—often imprecisely—to refer to a suite of stormwater solutions.
DOI Uncontrolled urbanization causes local flooding and deterioration of the water quality of receivers as a result of an increase in peak flow rate and increased washing out of contaminants from the catchment area. Currently, classic storage tanks are most often used. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4. Home Archives Vol 28 No 3 Articles.
For Sustainable Stormwater Management. Hudson County Planning Board. 1. The following list of Low Impact Development (LID) and Green Infrastructure.
City of Santa Cruz
Stormwater runoff causes one of the greatest threats to water quality in this country. Contaminated runoff degrades coastal waters and habitats. Polluted Stormwater is responsible for most of the beach closures and swimming advisories issued at our beaches across the nation. As cities and towns expand and become more developed, large portions of our watersheds are being paved over with concrete and other impervious surfaces. These hard surfaces interrupt the normal water cycle by preventing rainwater from soaking into the ground.
Due to the increasing population, most of the cities are more developing which results in the change of natural area into impervious areas roads, buildings etc. Moreover, urbanization and climate change are causing many water-related problems and making over cities unsafe and insecure. Under these circumstances, there is a need to introduce new stormwater management practices into developed cities to reduce the adverse impacts of urbanization. For this purpose, retrofitting low impact development practices demands more attention to reduce these water-related problems and trying to make our cities sustainable.
Low impact development LID means an approach to stormwater management that mimics a site's natural hydrology as the landscape is developed. Using low impact development approach, stormwater is managed on-site and the rate and volume of predevelopment stormwater reaching receiving waters is unchanged. The calculation of predevelopment hydrology is based on native soil and vegetation MN Statute , Section
In an effort to protect you and our community, changes and measures have been adopted in daily operations and activities. The use of Low Impact Development LID strategies can help to protect and enhance the environmental quality of our rivers, creeks and watersheds by slowing and infiltrating stormwater back into the ground, mimicking pre-development hydrology. State and federal storm water regulations require development and remodeling projects in the City to incorporate design standards and Best Management Practices BMPs in order to reduce storm water pollution and minimize the potential for erosion. For Single-Family Homes. For Public and Private Development Projects. To learn more about the Central Coast requirements, click here. Once a project with structural storm water BMPs is completed, the property owner will be required to submit a maintenance log to the City annually.
The term low impact development LID refers to systems and practices that use or mimic natural processes that result in the infiltration, evapotranspiration or use of stormwater in order to protect water quality and associated aquatic habitat. LID employs principles such as preserving and recreating natural landscape features, minimizing effective imperviousness to create functional and appealing site drainage that treat stormwater as a resource rather than a waste product. There are many practices that have been used to adhere to these principles such as bioretention facilities, rain gardens, vegetated rooftops, rain barrels and permeable pavements. By implementing LID principles and practices, water can be managed in a way that reduces the impact of built areas and promotes the natural movement of water within an ecosystem or watershed. Applied on a broad scale, LID can maintain or restore a watershed's hydrologic and ecological functions. Green infrastructure can help to maximize the environmental, economic, and social benefits of parks.
The term low impact development (LID) refers to systems and practices their grounds by implementing green stormwater management practices. #1: How LID Can Protect Your Community's Resources (PDF)(2 pp, 1 MB.
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