# Experimental Methods An Introduction To The Analysis And Presentation Of Data Pdf

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## Data analysis

Quantitative methods emphasize objective measurements and the statistical, mathematical, or numerical analysis of data collected through polls, questionnaires, and surveys, or by manipulating pre-existing statistical data using computational techniques. Quantitative research focuses on gathering numerical data and generalizing it across groups of people or to explain a particular phenomenon.

Babbie, Earl R. The Practice of Social Research. Your goal in conducting quantitative research study is to determine the relationship between one thing [an independent variable] and another [a dependent or outcome variable] within a population. Quantitative research designs are either descriptive [subjects usually measured once] or experimental [subjects measured before and after a treatment].

A descriptive study establishes only associations between variables; an experimental study establishes causality.

Quantitative research deals in numbers, logic, and an objective stance. Quantitative research focuses on numeric and unchanging data and detailed, convergent reasoning rather than divergent reasoning [i. Its main characteristics are :. The overarching aim of a quantitative research study is to classify features, count them, and construct statistical models in an attempt to explain what is observed. Things to keep in mind when reporting the results of a study using quantitative methods :.

Armonk, NY: M. Sharpe, ; Quantitative Research Methods. Writing CSU. Colorado State University; Singh, Kultar. Quantitative Social Research Methods. Los Angeles, CA: Sage, Before designing a quantitative research study, you must decide whether it will be descriptive or experimental because this will dictate how you gather, analyze, and interpret the results. A descriptive study is governed by the following rules: subjects are generally measured once; the intention is to only establish associations between variables; and, the study may include a sample population of hundreds or thousands of subjects to ensure that a valid estimate of a generalized relationship between variables has been obtained.

An experimental design includes subjects measured before and after a particular treatment, the sample population may be very small and purposefully chosen, and it is intended to establish causality between variables. Introduction The introduction to a quantitative study is usually written in the present tense and from the third person point of view. It covers the following information:.

Methodology The methods section of a quantitative study should describe how each objective of your study will be achieved. Be sure to provide enough detail to enable the reader can make an informed assessment of the methods being used to obtain results associated with the research problem. The methods section should be presented in the past tense.

Results The finding of your study should be written objectively and in a succinct and precise format. In quantitative studies, it is common to use graphs, tables, charts, and other non-textual elements to help the reader understand the data. Make sure that non-textual elements do not stand in isolation from the text but are being used to supplement the overall description of the results and to help clarify key points being made.

Further information about how to effectively present data using charts and graphs can be found here. Discussion Discussions should be analytic, logical, and comprehensive. The discussion should meld together your findings in relation to those identified in the literature review, and placed within the context of the theoretical framework underpinning the study. The discussion should be presented in the present tense.

Conclusion End your study by to summarizing the topic and provide a final comment and assessment of the study. Black, Thomas R. London: Sage, ; Gay,L. Educational Research: Competencies for Analysis and Applications. Bates College; Nenty, H. Basic Inquiry of Quantitative Research. Kennesaw State University. Quantitative researchers try to recognize and isolate specific variables contained within the study framework, seek correlation, relationships and causality, and attempt to control the environment in which the data is collected to avoid the risk of variables, other than the one being studied, accounting for the relationships identified.

Among the specific strengths of using quantitative methods to study social science research problems:. Sharpe, ; Singh, Kultar. Quantitative methods presume to have an objective approach to studying research problems, where data is controlled and measured, to address the accumulation of facts, and to determine the causes of behavior.

As a consequence, the results of quantitative research may be statistically significant but are often humanly insignificant. Some specific limitations associated with using quantitative methods to study research problems in the social sciences include:. SAGE publications is a major publisher of studies about how to design and conduct research in the social and behavioral sciences. The database also includes case studies outlining the research methods used in real research projects.

This is an excellent source for finding definitions of key terms and descriptions of research design and practice, techniques of data gathering, analysis, and reporting, and information about theories of research [e. The database covers both qualitative and quantitative research methods as well as mixed methods approaches to conducting research.

Search this Guide Search. Organizing Your Social Sciences Research Paper Offers detailed guidance on how to develop, organize, and write a college-level research paper in the social and behavioral sciences. The Abstract Executive Summary 4. The Introduction The C.

The Discussion Limitations of the Study 9. The Conclusion Appendices Definition Quantitative methods emphasize objective measurements and the statistical, mathematical, or numerical analysis of data collected through polls, questionnaires, and surveys, or by manipulating pre-existing statistical data using computational techniques.

Characteristics of Quantitative Research Your goal in conducting quantitative research study is to determine the relationship between one thing [an independent variable] and another [a dependent or outcome variable] within a population. Its main characteristics are : The data is usually gathered using structured research instruments. The results are based on larger sample sizes that are representative of the population. The research study can usually be replicated or repeated, given its high reliability.

Researcher has a clearly defined research question to which objective answers are sought. All aspects of the study are carefully designed before data is collected. Data are in the form of numbers and statistics, often arranged in tables, charts, figures, or other non-textual forms. Project can be used to generalize concepts more widely, predict future results, or investigate causal relationships. Researcher uses tools, such as questionnaires or computer software, to collect numerical data.

Things to keep in mind when reporting the results of a study using quantitative methods : Explain the data collected and their statistical treatment as well as all relevant results in relation to the research problem you are investigating.

Interpretation of results is not appropriate in this section. Report unanticipated events that occurred during your data collection. Explain how the actual analysis differs from the planned analysis. Explain your handling of missing data and why any missing data does not undermine the validity of your analysis. Explain the techniques you used to "clean" your data set. Choose a minimally sufficient statistical procedure ; provide a rationale for its use and a reference for it.

Specify any computer programs used. Describe the assumptions for each procedure and the steps you took to ensure that they were not violated. When using inferential statistics , provide the descriptive statistics, confidence intervals, and sample sizes for each variable as well as the value of the test statistic, its direction, the degrees of freedom, and the significance level [report the actual p value].

Avoid inferring causality , particularly in nonrandomized designs or without further experimentation. Use tables to provide exact values ; use figures to convey global effects. Keep figures small in size; include graphic representations of confidence intervals whenever possible. Always tell the reader what to look for in tables and figures. Basic Research Design for Quantitative Studies Before designing a quantitative research study, you must decide whether it will be descriptive or experimental because this will dictate how you gather, analyze, and interpret the results.

It covers the following information: Identifies the research problem -- as with any academic study, you must state clearly and concisely the research problem being investigated.

Reviews the literature -- review scholarship on the topic, synthesizing key themes and, if necessary, noting studies that have used similar methods of inquiry and analysis. Note where key gaps exist and how your study helps to fill these gaps or clarifies existing knowledge.

Describes the theoretical framework -- provide an outline of the theory or hypothesis underpinning your study. If necessary, define unfamiliar or complex terms, concepts, or ideas and provide the appropriate background information to place the research problem in proper context [e.

Study population and sampling -- where did the data come from; how robust is it; note where gaps exist or what was excluded. Note the procedures used for their selection; Data collection — describe the tools and methods used to collect information and identify the variables being measured; describe the methods used to obtain the data; and, note if the data was pre-existing [i.

If you gathered it yourself, describe what type of instrument you used and why. Note that no data set is perfect--describe any limitations in methods of gathering data. Data analysis -- describe the procedures for processing and analyzing the data. If appropriate, describe the specific instruments of analysis used to study each research objective, including mathematical techniques and the type of computer software used to manipulate the data.

Statistical analysis -- how did you analyze the data? What were the key findings from the data? The findings should be present in a logical, sequential order. Describe but do not interpret these trends or negative results; save that for the discussion section.

The results should be presented in the past tense. Interpretation of results -- reiterate the research problem being investigated and compare and contrast the findings with the research questions underlying the study. Did they affirm predicted outcomes or did the data refute it?

## Looking for other ways to read this?

Home Consumer Insights Market Research. Quantitative data is defined as the value of data in the form of counts or numbers where each data-set has an unique numerical value associated with it. This data is any quantifiable information that can be used for mathematical calculations and statistical analysis, such that real-life decisions can be made based on these mathematical derivations. This data can be verified and can also be conveniently evaluated using mathematical techniques. There are values associated with most measuring parameters such as pounds or kilograms for weight, dollars for cost etc. Quantitative data makes measuring various parameters controllable due to the ease of mathematical derivations they come with. Quantitative data is usually collected for statistical analysis using surveys , polls or questionnaires sent across to a specific section of a population.

Published on July 18, by Amy Luo. Revised on February 15, Content analysis is a research method used to identify patterns in recorded communication. To conduct content analysis, you systematically collect data from a set of texts, which can be written, oral, or visual:. Content analysis can be both quantitative focused on counting and measuring and qualitative focused on interpreting and understanding.

Experimental Methods for Science and Engineering Students - Title page. pp iii-iii​. An Introduction To The Analysis And Presentation Of Data. Access. PDF.

## Basic Statistical Methods Ppt

It analyses a set of data or a sample of data. For example till recently. UNODC data collection systems. The contributions of this paper are: 1. There are both pros and cons to using secondary data.

Data analysis is a process of inspecting, cleansing , transforming , and modeling data with the goal of discovering useful information, informing conclusions, and supporting decision-making. Data analysis has multiple facets and approaches, encompassing diverse techniques under a variety of names, and is used in different business, science, and social science domains. In today's business world, data analysis plays a role in making decisions more scientific and helping businesses operate more effectively. Data mining is a particular data analysis technique that focuses on statistical modeling and knowledge discovery for predictive rather than purely descriptive purposes, while business intelligence covers data analysis that relies heavily on aggregation, focusing mainly on business information.

### Design of Experiments (DOE)

This student—friendly text integrates topics of fundamental importance such as keeping a laboratory notebook, analysing experimental data and report writing with the necessary tools to perform procedures. Important concepts underpinning the analysis and presentation of experimental data are reinforced with worked examples followed by student exercises. This book is designed as a supplementary text for students beginning study in the physical sciences and engineering at tertiary institutions. The text integrates topics of fundamental importance in these courses such as keeping a laboratory notebook, analysing experimental data, and report writing.

Quantitative methods emphasize objective measurements and the statistical, mathematical, or numerical analysis of data collected through polls, questionnaires, and surveys, or by manipulating pre-existing statistical data using computational techniques. Quantitative research focuses on gathering numerical data and generalizing it across groups of people or to explain a particular phenomenon. Babbie, Earl R.

#### Definition

National Library of Australia. Search the catalogue for collection items held by the National Library of Australia. Kirkup, L. Experimental methods : an introduction to the analysis and presentation of data. Wiley Brisbane ; New York. Request this item to view in the Library's reading rooms using your library card.

The term experiment is defined as the systematic procedure carried out under controlled conditions in order to discover an unknown effect, to test or establish a hypothesis, or to illustrate a known effect. When analyzing a process, experiments are often used to evaluate which process inputs have a significant impact on the process output, and what the target level of those inputs should be to achieve a desired result output. Experiments can be designed in many different ways to collect this information.

Basic Statistical Methods Ppt. Here is a bar graph with the standard deviation value for each mean. The table below describes the basic characteristics of different methodologies. Basic statistical modelling examples.

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