Illegal Drugs And Their Effects Pdf


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Drug Use and Addiction

A drug is any substance that causes a change in an organism's physiology or psychology when consumed. Consumption of drugs can be via inhalation , injection , smoking , ingestion , absorption via a patch on the skin, suppository , or dissolution under the tongue. In pharmacology , a drug is a chemical substance, typically of known structure, which, when administered to a living organism, produces a biological effect.

Pharmaceutical drugs are often classified into drug classes —groups of related drugs that have similar chemical structures , the same mechanism of action binding to the same biological target , a related mode of action , and that are used to treat the same disease. Another major classification system is the Biopharmaceutics Classification System. This classifies drugs according to their solubility and permeability or absorption properties.

Psychoactive drugs are chemical substances that affect the function of the central nervous system , altering perception , mood or consciousness. These psychoactive drugs have been proven useful in treating wide range of medical conditions including mental disorders around the world. The most widely used drugs in the world include caffeine , nicotine and alcohol , [12] which are also considered recreational drugs , since they are used for pleasure rather than medicinal purposes.

Many recreational drugs are illicit and international treaties such as the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs exist for the purpose of their prohibition. In English, the noun "drug" is thought to originate from Old French "drogue", possibly deriving from "droge vate " from Middle Dutch meaning "dry barrels ", referring to medicinal plants preserved as dry matter in barrels. A medication or medicine is a drug taken to cure or ameliorate any symptoms of an illness or medical condition. The use may also be as preventive medicine that has future benefits but does not treat any existing or pre-existing diseases or symptoms.

Dispensing of medication is often regulated by governments into three categories— over-the-counter medications, which are available in pharmacies and supermarkets without special restrictions; behind-the-counter medicines, which are dispensed by a pharmacist without needing a doctor's prescription, and prescription only medicines , which must be prescribed by a licensed medical professional , usually a physician.

In the United Kingdom, behind-the-counter medicines are called pharmacy medicines which can only be sold in registered pharmacies, by or under the supervision of a pharmacist. These medications are designated by the letter P on the label. Medications are typically produced by pharmaceutical companies and are often patented to give the developer exclusive rights to produce them.

Those that are not patented or with expired patents are called generic drugs since they can be produced by other companies without restrictions or licenses from the patent holder. Pharmaceutical drugs are usually categorised into drug classes. A group of drugs will share a similar chemical structure , or have the same mechanism of action , the same related mode of action or target the same illness or related illnesses. This groups drugs according to their solubility and permeability or absorption properties.

Some religions, particularly ethnic religions , are based completely on the use of certain drugs, known as entheogens , which are mostly hallucinogens ,— psychedelics , dissociatives , or deliriants.

Some drugs used as entheogens include kava which can act as a stimulant , a sedative , a euphoriant and an anesthetic. The roots of the kava plant are used to produce a drink which is consumed throughout the cultures of the Pacific Ocean.

Some shamans from different cultures use entheogens, defined as "generating the divine within" [21] to achieve religious ecstasy. Mazatec shamans have a long and continuous tradition of religious use of Salvia divinorum a psychoactive plant. Its use is to facilitate visionary states of consciousness during spiritual healing sessions. Silene undulata is regarded by the Xhosa people as a sacred plant and used as an entheogen.

Its roots are traditionally used to induce vivid and according to the Xhosa, prophetic lucid dreams during the initiation process of shamans , classifying it a naturally occurring oneirogen similar to the more well-known dream herb Calea ternifolia. Peyote a small spineless cactus has been a major source of psychedelic mescaline and has probably been used by Native Americans for at least five thousand years. The entheogenic use of cannabis has also been widely practised [27] for centuries.

Psychedelic mushrooms psilocybin mushrooms , commonly called magic mushrooms or shrooms have also long been used as entheogens. Nootropics , also commonly referred to as "smart drugs", are drugs that are claimed to improve human cognitive abilities. Nootropics are used to improve memory, concentration, thought, mood, and learning.

An increasingly used nootropic among students, also known as a study drug , is methylphenidate branded commonly as Ritalin and used for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ADHD and narcolepsy.

Evidence for use outside of student settings is limited but suggests that it is commonplace. Other drugs known as designer drugs are produced. An early example of what today would be labelled a 'designer drug' was LSD , which was synthesised from ergot. Since the late s there has been the identification of many of these synthesised drugs. In Japan and the United Kingdom this has spurred the addition of many designer drugs into a newer class of controlled substances known as a temporary class drug.

Synthetic cannabinoids have been produced for a longer period of time and are used in the designer drug synthetic cannabis. Recreational drug use is the use of a drug legal, controlled, or illegal with the primary intention of altering the state of consciousness through alteration of the central nervous system in order to create positive emotions and feelings. The hallucinogen LSD is a psychoactive drug commonly used as a recreational drug.

Some national laws prohibit the use of different recreational drugs; and medicinal drugs that have the potential for recreational use are often heavily regulated. However, there are many recreational drugs that are legal in many jurisdictions and widely culturally accepted. Cannabis is the most commonly consumed controlled recreational drug in the world as of It can be used in the leaf form of marijuana grass , or in the resin form of hashish.

Marijuana is a more mild form of cannabis than hashish. There may be an age restriction on the consumption and purchase of legal recreational drugs. Some recreational drugs that are legal and accepted in many places include alcohol , tobacco , betel nut , and caffeine products, and in some areas of the world the legal use of drugs such as khat is common. There are a number of legal intoxicants commonly called legal highs that are used recreationally.

The most widely used of these is alcohol. All drugs, can be administered via a number of routes , and many can be administered by more than one. There are numerous governmental offices in many countries that deal with the control and oversee of drug manufacture and use, and the implementation of various drug laws. The Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs is an international treaty brought about in to prohibit the use of narcotics save for those used in medical research and treatment.

In , a second treaty the Convention on Psychotropic Substances had to be introduced to deal with newer recreational psychoactive and psychedelic drugs. The legal status of Salvia divinorum varies in many countries and even in states within the United States.

Where it is legislated against the degree of prohibition also varies. The Food and Drug Administration FDA in the United States is a federal agency responsible for protecting and promoting public health through the regulation and supervision of food safety , tobacco products , dietary supplements , prescription and over-the-counter medications , vaccines , biopharmaceuticals , blood transfusions , medical devices , electromagnetic radiation emitting devices, cosmetics , animal foods [39] and veterinary drugs.

In India, the Narcotics Control Bureau abbr. NCB ,an Indian federal law enforcement and intelligence agency under the Ministry of Home Affairs , Government of India is tasked with combating drug trafficking and assisting international use of illegal substances under the provisions of Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Substance having an effect on the body. For other uses, see Drug disambiguation. Main articles: Pharmaceutical drug , Drug class , and Medication. Main article: Entheogen. Main articles: Nootropic , Designer drug , and Psychoactive drug. Main article: Recreational drug use. Further information: Prohibition of drugs. Main article: Route of administration. Bolus is the administration of a medication, drug or other compound that is given to raise its concentration in blood to an effective level.

The administration can be given intravenously, by parenteral,by indovenous, by intramuscular, intrathecal or subcutaneous injection. Inhaled , breathed into the lungs , as an aerosol , inhaler , vape or dry powder this includes smoking or vaping a substance. Injection as a solution , suspension or emulsion either: intramuscular , intravenous , intraperitoneal , intraosseous.

Insufflation , as a nasal spray or snorting into the nose. Orally , as a liquid or solid, that is absorbed through the intestines. Rectally as a suppository , that is absorbed by the rectum or colon. Sublingually , diffusing into the blood through tissues under the tongue.

Topically , usually as a cream or ointment. A drug administered in this manner may be given to act locally or systemically. Meredith Hopes ed. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Archived from the original on 26 July Retrieved 15 January Archived from the original on 11 April Retrieved Random House. Archived from the original on 14 September — via Dictionary. Stedman's Medical Dictionary.

Archived from the original on Retrieved — via Drugs. M, Dale; J. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone. Biotechnol Adv. The American Heritage Science Dictionary. Houghton Mifflin Company. Archived from the original on 14 September Retrieved 20 September — via dictionary. Introduction to drug utilization research PDF.

7 Drug Categories

This study uses a functional perspective to examine the reasons young people cite for using psychoactive substances. The study sample comprised young poly-drug users recruited using snowball-sampling methods. Data on lifetime and recent frequency and intensity of use for alcohol, cannabis, amphetamines, ecstasy, LSD and cocaine are presented. A majority of the participants had used at least one of these six drugs to fulfil 11 of 18 measured substance use functions. The most popular functions for use were using to: relax Substance use functions were found to differ by age and gender.

Drugs are chemical substances that can change how your body and mind work. They include prescription medicines, over-the-counter medicines , alcohol , tobacco , and illegal drugs. Drug use is dangerous. It can harm your brain and body, sometimes permanently. It can hurt the people around you, including friends, families, kids, and unborn babies. Drug use can also lead to addiction. Drug addiction is a chronic brain disease.

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Drug addiction, also called substance use disorder, is a disease that affects a person's brain and behavior and leads to an inability to control the use of a legal or illegal drug or medication. Substances such as alcohol, marijuana and nicotine also are considered drugs. When you're addicted, you may continue using the drug despite the harm it causes. Drug addiction can start with experimental use of a recreational drug in social situations, and, for some people, the drug use becomes more frequent. For others, particularly with opioids, drug addiction begins with exposure to prescribed medications, or receiving medications from a friend or relative who has been prescribed the medication.

Medications or pharmaceuticals are also drugs and are regulated differently dependent on their level of health risk. Short-term health harms. Short-term health harms are those that can occur as a result of an episode of use, or, in the case of medications, inappropriate use. These vary markedly depending on the drug being used type, amount etc and may be from the drug itself or from the manner in which the drug is taken. For information about the short-term health effects of a specific illicit drug, visit the page called Misused substances.

A drug is any substance that causes a change in an organism's physiology or psychology when consumed. Consumption of drugs can be via inhalation , injection , smoking , ingestion , absorption via a patch on the skin, suppository , or dissolution under the tongue. In pharmacology , a drug is a chemical substance, typically of known structure, which, when administered to a living organism, produces a biological effect. Pharmaceutical drugs are often classified into drug classes —groups of related drugs that have similar chemical structures , the same mechanism of action binding to the same biological target , a related mode of action , and that are used to treat the same disease.

Drug Use and Addiction

Illegal drug production, specifically marijuana in California, and cocaine in South America, is resulting in intensive environmental degradation.

Related Items

Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Regardless of the factors at work, it is the ultimate goal of the nation's investment in drug abuse research to take more effective measures to prevent drug abuse and to reduce its associated costs and consequences. A comprehensive assessment of knowledge and research opportunities on the multiple consequences of drug abuse would have far exceeded the committee's allowable time frame and expertise. Consequently, it chose to focus on three areas that involve pronounced social consequences, where the need for strategic interventions are greatest: 1 the transmission and course of HIV infection; 2 fetal and child development; and 3 violent behavior. It should be noted that negative consequences can derive from patterns of problematic use that do not meet the criteria for abuse and dependence as well as from abuse or dependence. It now appears that injection drug use is the leading risk factor for new human immunodeficiency virus HIV infections in the U.

This study uses a functional perspective to examine the reasons young people cite for using psychoactive substances. The study sample comprised young poly-drug users recruited using snowball-sampling methods. Data on lifetime and recent frequency and intensity of use for alcohol, cannabis, amphetamines, ecstasy, LSD and cocaine are presented. A majority of the participants had used at least one of these six drugs to fulfil 11 of 18 measured substance use functions. The most popular functions for use were using to: relax Substance use functions were found to differ by age and gender. Recognition of the functions fulfilled by substance use should help health educators and prevention strategists to make health messages about drugs more relevant and appropriate to general and specific audiences.

Physicians have long recognized that different types of drugs affect people differently. Nonetheless, drugs may be categorized or classified according to certain shared symptomatologies or effects.

If drugs cause physical changes in the body, the words addict, addictive, addicted and addiction are used. The common addictive drugs are: alcohol, morphine, heroin, cocaine and barbiturates. Drugs create a state of mind in some individuals which is termed psychic dependence.

 Мне срочно нужно такси. Охранник покачал головой. - Demasiado temperano.

Drug Use and Addiction

И не похоже, что… - Что? - Бринкерхофф даже подпрыгнул. Мидж смотрела на цифры, не веря своим глазам. - Этот файл, тот, что загрузили вчера вечером… - Ну .

Беккер старался говорить как можно официальнее: - Дело весьма срочное. Этот человек сломал запястье, у него травма головы. Он был принят сегодня утром. Его карточка должна лежать где-то сверху. Беккер еще больше усилил акцент, но так, чтобы собеседница могла понять, что ему нужно, и говорил слегка сбивчиво, подчеркивая свою крайнюю озабоченность.

Illicit Drug Use

Новость не обрадовала коммандера. Выслушав подробности, он долго молчал. Дэвид, - сказал наконец Стратмор мрачным голосом, - обнаружение этого кольца - вопрос национальной безопасности. Я возлагаю эту задачу на. Не подведите .

 Ну видите, все не так страшно, правда? - Она села в кресло и скрестила ноги.  - И сколько вы заплатите. Вздох облегчения вырвался из груди Беккера. Он сразу же перешел к делу: - Я могу заплатить вам семьсот пятьдесят тысяч песет. Пять тысяч американских долларов.

Legal and illegal Drugs. Their effects and dangers to health

Она стояла у второй входной двери, что была в некотором отдалении, прижимая сумку к груди.

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