Time And Motion Study In Production Management Pdf

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Research focused on SME, which produce chili sauce. This research used Time and Motion technique to improve work process at SME, and the research objectives towards accomplished this study is to identify problems in the production work process and improved it in terms of production time, number of process and production layout by proposing an efficient work process to SME.

This research used systematic observation; process chart and stopwatch time study as research methodology.

Stat Fit and Pro Model Software are used for data testing and develop new work process. The improvement of work process was executed by eliminating and combining of work process, which reduces production time, number of process and space utilization.

Introduction 1. There can categorize into three criteria — primary agriculture, manufacturing and services. The small of its enterprise caused difficult for them to competing with other firmed companies such as Jalen, Kimball, Maggie and Life.

Thus, this research takes initiative to used Time and Motion technique to improve the work process in order to permit them to compete with international rivalry. The Time and Motion study will examine the work process and eliminate nonproductive process, which can reduce number of process, space utilization and production and operation time. Time is important in production industry because according Fred time is money and time tells us exactly how much money was used.

Sometimes, the production takes extra time in producing their products. Moreover, the production department does not have any fixed or standard time for each process. They just decide and estimate the time for each process. Because of that, they often take longer than the time estimated. Thus, it might be difficult for them to increase productivity and competes with other rivals. Johor, Malaysia. Email: talibon gmail. Among the advantages for SME in producing their sauce are: i Eliminate the Unnecessary Knowing what is unnecessary is important as knowing what is the most important in production and operation.

Based on those, we can eliminate insignificant tasks and nonproductive activities. Preoccupation, layout of production, errors, too much motion and travel during performing the tasks are examples of nonproductive activities and it wasted the production time. Besides that, changing the sequence of operation also involve layout of production, where it can reduce space utilization. By simplifying the operations, it can also effect for the production time.

Literature Review 2. Barnes Frank and Lillian M. Gilbreth are known as the parents of motion study. He also possessed for analyzing work motion situations to enhance their ability for shorter or less fatiguing motions to improve the work environment.

The research included the elimination of all useless motions and the reduction of those remaining motions. The elimination of this unwanted waste known as work simplification.

According Fred , Elton Mayo started their research known as the human relations movement and he discovered that people work better when their attitude is better. He undertook a research project to study what factors affected productivity in the Hawthrone plant. Their studied took place between and Mayers , time study was developed by Frederick W.

Taylor identify that there have different size of shovels and he wondered which shovel was the most efficient. Thus, he used a stopwatch and measured everything that workers did. He recorded the data for every work in various ways with varied of shovels size, durations to done their work, number of breaks and work hours. The results were fantastic which it reduced time, saving numbers of workers and budgeting for every year.

We can by eliminating the task or combining the task with some task. We can rearrange the elements of work to reduce the work content and we can simplify the operation by moving part. Thus, among the techniques for motion study are : i Process charts ii Flow diagrams iii Operation charts iv Flow process charts v Multiple activity charts Gilbreths used flow diagrams to show movement of product around an entire plant because they gave an accurate geographical picture of the entire process.

They also develop methods study techniques such as cyclograph, chronocyclographs, movie cameras, etc. The techniques of time study start with the last motion technique and it shows the close relationship between motion study and time study.

Taylor used a stopwatch and a clipboard to record the time and findings of his study Foster, Motion and Time study technique can be used widely for variety of research. Skierczynski, Zhenqiang Lu used this techniques to study spend time of nurse at hospital. While, Jeffrey S. Smith survey that many production and manufacturing used simulation as alternative way to develop new effective system. Motion and Time Study is a scientific method designed by two different people for the same purpose, to increase productivity and reduce time.

The two methods evaluate work and try to find ways to improve processes. Frank B. Gilbreth invented motion study designed to determine the best way to complete a job. Frederick W. Taylor designed Time Study; it measures how long it takes a worker to complete a task. Time and Motion Study has become a necessary tool for businesses to be successful today. Time and Motion Study is very important in production control. Offices use it to measure and simplify work in order to reduce costs.

Banks use it to help team members reach their sales goals Foster, Research Methodology 3. After the literature review, observation and collecting data is needed. The complete field data collection will be tested before it will be used for data analysis.

The problems and nonproductive in the work process can be identified based on the data collection and their analysis. Then, the result from the data testing will be determined whether the result can be used or not and if there are any incomplete data, the data collection will be executed again until it fulfills the objective requirement.

After all the data and analysis are complete, proposal and opinion will be issued to SME 3. Field study is all the methods of research are made from direct observations towards the live study situations. Researcher collected data by observing and recorded the research subject during the observation. According to Tunnell, , the event from the field study is a matter of real situation in the live condition continuously.

The matter is not invent, on design or pause for the research purpose. This research used time and motion technique to study on improving the work process.

Meaning, the increasing of work process efficiency is depending on the time and motion technique. There are given below according to their sequence : i Select: select the process or job to be studied. Based on the observation, is needs to record everything happens in each process from the start to finish the work process. It is also used to analyze a specific process by qualified workers in an effort to find the most efficient ways in terms of time.

Moreover, this method measures the time necessary for a work process to be completed using the best ways. The time was measured using snapback stopwatch equipment because it is easier and faster in data recording. Moreover, this type of stopwatch is suitable for this research because it can develop accurate data.

This allows the element times to be entered directly on the time study sheet without the need for subtractions. Each fact can be represented by symbols, where it is used to describe the process steps. Analyzing data based on systematic observation and the process chart, which recorded all the relevant facts about the work process.

Examine each recorded fact critically using chart and graph that was produced by Stat Fit and ProModel software.

Then, we can detect which part are nonproductive and take a long time in the work process. It is a powerful tool to test various alternative design, ideas and process before actual implementation. Improvement in existing system or design of new process can be modeled and tested.

Besides that, various operating process and it alternatives can be compared and analyzed. Typically, most users use simulation tools to accurately predict and improve system performance by modeling the actual location, such as machine or equipment arrangements.

Through testing various alternative process or system, we can determine the best way to conduct operations. Data Analysis and Outcomes 4. The data collected can explain how the process operates, when, where and how the activities takes place. Each work process included minor process. The process started with cleaning the raw material, mixture, cooking, filling, labelling and the end process is packaging the sauce into four bottles for each.

Table 1 shows the numbers and percentages of each process.

Time and Motion Study Volume 6 Issue 2

It will take some time before the value of the recent Production Exhibition held in London can be fully assessed, but there is little doubt that this new departure in exhibitions has left its mark. Report bugs here. Please share your general feedback. You can join in the discussion by joining the community or logging in here. You can also find out more about Emerald Engage. Visit emeraldpublishing.

Motion study is part of method study where analysis of the motion of an operator or work will be studied by following the prescribed methods. Principles of Motion study There are a number of principles concerning the economy of movements which have been developed as a result of experience and which forms the basis for the development of improved methods at the workplace. These are first used by Frank Gilbreth, the founder of motion study and further rearranged and amplified by Barnes, Maynard and others. The principles are grouped into three headings:. Recording Techniques of Motion Study Most of the techniques mentioned in method study is used in the motion study.

Time and Motion Study Department: Advantages and Calculation

In this article we will discuss about:- 1. Meaning of Motion Study 2. The propounder of this concept was Frank Gilbesth. The main aim of motion study is to find the scheme of least wastage of labour. Subsequently, the scope of Motion Study was enlarged and it was named as Method Study.

NO one will pretend that work study occupies the departmental status that it is entitled to occupy in the organisation structure. This seems strange since increased production and optimum efficiency springs from its functions. Report bugs here. Please share your general feedback. You can join in the discussion by joining the community or logging in here.

A time and motion study or time-motion study is a business efficiency technique combining the Time Study work of Frederick Winslow Taylor with the Motion Study work of Frank and Lillian Gilbreth the same couple as is best known through the biographical film and book Cheaper by the Dozen. It is a major part of scientific management Taylorism. After its first introduction, time study developed in the direction of establishing standard times , while motion study evolved into a technique for improving work methods.

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Ненавидел американскую еду, американские нравы, но более всего ему было ненавистно то, что американцы железной хваткой держали мировой рынок компьютерных программ. У Стратмора был смелый план - создать всемирный стандарт шифрования с черным ходом для Агентства национальной безопасности. Он страстно желал разделить эту мечту со Сьюзан, осуществить ее с ней вместе, но знал, что это невозможно. Хотя смерть Энсея Танкадо спасет в будущем тысячи жизней, Сьюзан никогда не примет ничего подобного: она убежденная пацифистка. Я тоже пацифист, - подумал Стратмор, - я просто не могу позволить себе роскошь вести себя как пацифист.

Time and motion study

 Нет, спасибо.  - Сьюзан шумно выдохнула и повернулась к.  - Я думаю, - начала она, -что я только… -но слова застряли у нее в горле.

 - Вычитайте, да побыстрее. Джабба схватил калькулятор и начал нажимать кнопки. - А что это за звездочка? - спросила Сьюзан.

Хейл замолк, уставившись в свой компьютер. Она мечтала, чтобы он поскорее ушел. Сьюзан подумала, не позвонить ли ей Стратмору. Коммандер в два счета выставит Хейла - все-таки сегодня суббота. Но она отдавала себе отчет в том, что, если Хейла отправят домой, он сразу же заподозрит неладное, начнет обзванивать коллег-криптографов, спрашивать, что они об этом думают, В конце концов Сьюзан решила, что будет лучше, если Хейл останется.


Он не мог отказаться. - Ты права, - проворчал Стратмор.  - Поэтому я его и попросил.

Коридор, выложенный кафельными плитками, довольно круто спускался вниз, и Сьюзан держалась за перила, стараясь не отставать. Воздух в помещении становился все прохладнее. Чем глубже под землю уходил коридор, тем уже он становился. Откуда-то сзади до них долетело эхо чьих-то громких, решительных шагов.

Недавно Стратмор сделал так, что Халохота снабдили новейшей игрушкой АНБ - компьютером Монокль. Себе Стратмор купил Скайпейджер, который запрограммировал на ту же частоту. Начиная с этого момента его связь с Халохотом стала не только мгновенной, но и абсолютно неотслеживаемой.

Понятно, почему она не хотела верить ни одному его слову. Он почувствовал, как вокруг него выросла стена, и понял, что ему не удастся выпутаться из этой ситуации, по крайней мере своевременно. И он в отчаянии прошептал ей на ухо: - Сьюзан… Стратмор убил Чатрукьяна. - Отпусти ее, - спокойно сказал Стратмор.  - Она тебе все равно не поверит.

Техника извлечения.  - Она пробежала глазами таблицу.


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