Noise Pollution Causes Effects And Control Measures PdfBy Quincy D. In and pdf 22.03.2021 at 04:53 5 min read
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- What is Noise Pollution?
- Land Pollution: Causes, Effects, and Prevention
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When many of us think of pollution, images of smoggy cities and litter-infested oceans come to mind. While littering and gasoline-fueled cars are a major contributor to pollution, there are many other influences that are important to be aware of.
Water pollution guide website: information on sources of pollution and how they can be treated. Sewage is another name for waste water from domestic and industrial processes. Despite strict regulatory control, the Environment Agency data shows that the water and sewage industry accounted for almost a quarter of the serious water incidents in England and Wales in Agricultural processes such as uncontrolled spreading of slurries and manure, disposal of sheep dip, tillage, ploughing of the land, use of pesticides and fertilisers can cause water pollution. Accidental spills from milk dairies can also affect the quality of water.
What is Noise Pollution?
Air pollution is responsible for many health problems in the urban areas. Of late, the air pollution status in Delhi has undergone many changes in terms of the levels of pollutants and the control measures taken to reduce them. This paper provides an evidence-based insight into the status of air pollution in Delhi and its effects on health and control measures instituted.
Vehicular emissions and industrial activities were found to be associated with indoor as well as outdoor air pollution in Delhi. Studies on air pollution and mortality from Delhi found that all-natural-cause mortality and morbidity increased with increased air pollution.
Delhi has taken several steps to reduce the level of air pollution in the city during the last 10 years. However, more still needs to be done to further reduce the levels of air pollution. Pollution refers to the contamination of the earth's environment with materials that interfere with human health, quality of life or the natural functioning of the ecosystems.
The major forms of pollution include water pollution, air pollution, noise pollution and soil contamination. Other less-recognised forms include thermal pollution and radioactive hazards. It is difficult to hold any one particular form responsible for maximum risk to health; however, air and water pollution appear to be responsible for a large proportion of pollution related health problems. Delhi or the National Capital Territory of Delhi , is jointly administered by the central and state governments.
It accommodates nearly Metros across the world bear the major brunt of environmental pollution; likewise, Delhi is at the receiving end in India. A study funded by the World Bank Development Research Group was carried out in to study the effects of air pollution. The study concluded that the impact of particulate matter on total non-trauma deaths in Delhi was smaller than the effects found in the United States of America, but found that a death associated with air pollution in Delhi caused more life-years to be lost because these deaths were occurring at a younger age.
A report by the Ministry of Environment and Forests, India, in reviewed the environmental situation in Delhi over concerns of deteriorating conditions. The particulate lead concentrations appeared to be in control; this was attributable to the de-leading of petrol and restrictions on lead-handling industrial units. Vehicular pollution is an important contributor to air pollution in Delhi.
According to the Department of Transport, Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi, vehicular population is estimated at more than 3.
Although this segment contributes to two-thirds of the air pollution, there has been a palpable decline compared to the levels.
The PM 10 standard is generally used to measure air quality. These small particles are likely to be responsible for adverse health effects because of their ability to reach the lower regions of the respiratory tract. Elderly persons, children and people with chronic lung disease, influenza or asthma are especially sensitive to the effects of particulate matter. A large number of studies in Delhi have examined the effect of air pollution on respiratory functions and the associated morbidity.
The most comprehensive study among them was the one conducted by the Central Pollution Control Board in , which identified significant associations with all relevant adverse health outcomes. It was found that Delhi had 1. Prevalence of current asthma in the last 12 months and physician-diagnosed asthma among the participants of Delhi was significantly higher than in controls. Lung function was reduced in Metaplasia and dysplasia of airway epithelial cells were more frequent in Delhi, and Delhi had the greater prevalence of several cytological changes in sputum.
Besides these, non-respiratory effects were also seen to be more in Delhi than in rural controls. Delhi had significantly higher levels of chronic headache, eye irritation and skin irritation. Several other community-based studies have found that air pollution is associated with respiratory morbidity. Studies that have examined the compounding effect of meteorological conditions on air pollution found that winter worsened the air quality of both indoor air and outdoor air.
They also found a positive correlation between the winter weather and rise in the number of patients with chronic obstructive airway disease in hospitals. There was a relative paucity of studies that measured outdoor air pollutant levels first hand and then tried to objectively correlate them to adverse health effects.
However, some studies measured air pollutant levels and found a correlation with health-related events. A time-series study on air pollution and mortality from Delhi found that all-natural-cause mortality increased with increased air pollution. The Central Pollution Control Board set up in under the Water Act is the principal watchdog for carrying out the functions stated in the environmental acts, implementation of National Air Quality Monitoring Programme and other activities.
The Delhi Pollution Control Board is the body responsible at the state level. From time to time, the judiciary has taken strong note of the deteriorating environmental conditions in Delhi in response to public litigations. One of the earliest such instances was the judgement passed by the Supreme Court of India to deal with the acute problem of vehicular pollution in Delhi in response to a writ petition filed in Subsequently, it ordered the shutdown of hazardous, noxious industries and hot-mix plants and brick kilns operating in Delhi.
Control measures so far instituted include introduction of unleaded petrol , catalytic converter in passenger cars , reduction of sulfur content in diesel and reduction of benzene content in fuels Introduction of The Air Ambience Fund levied from diesel sales and setting up of stringent emission norms for industries and thermal power stations are the other measures.
Environmental awareness campaigns are also carried out at regular intervals. The first Industrial Policy for Delhi was introduced in Subsequently, a second Industrial policy — was issued by the Department of Industries, Government of Delhi. It is a comprehensive document envisioning higher industrial development in Delhi, with one of its mandates being to develop clean and non-polluting industries and details of steps to be undertaken in this direction have been described.
There are many other organizations that work synergistically with the government efforts to reduce air pollution. Government agencies like Factories Inspectorate are also involved in the control of pollution.
Since the first act on pollution was instituted, huge progress has been made in terms of human resource, infrastructure development and research capability. Some studies tried to gather evidence for the effectiveness of control measures by comparing pre- and post-intervention health status. The study conducted by the Central Pollution Control Board demonstrated that spending h in clean indoor environment can reduce health effects of exposure to chronic air pollution.
Most of the studies were ecological correlation studies, which are severely limited in their ability to draw causal inferences. But, considering the context that demanded the research, these were probably the best available designs to produce preliminary and,sometimes, policy-influencing evidences, as any other methodology would be unethical or operationally impossible. The Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi has taken several steps to reduce the level of air pollution in the city during the last 10 years.
The benefits of air pollution control measures are showing in the readings. The already existing measures need to be strengthened and magnified to a larger scale. The governmental efforts alone are not enough.
Participation of the community is crucial in order to make a palpable effect in the reduction of pollution. The use of public transport needs to be promoted. The use of Metro rail can be encouraged by provision of an adequate number of feeder buses at Metro stations that ply with the desired frequency.
More frequent checking of Pollution Under Control Certificates needs to be undertaken by the civic authorities to ensure that vehicles are emitting gases within permissible norms. People need to be educated to switch-off their vehicles when waiting at traffic intersections.
The ever-increasing influx of migrants can be reduced by developing and creating job opportunities in the peripheral and suburban areas, and thus prevent further congestion of the already-choked capital city of Delhi.
Health, as we all know, is an all-pervasive subject, lying not only within the domains of the health department but with all those involved in human development. Many great scholars from Charaka to Hippocrates have stressed the importance of environment in the health of the individual.
Therefore, all those who play a role in modifying the environment in any way, for whatever reason, need to contribute to safeguard people's health by controlling all those factors which affect it. Source of Support: Nil. Conflict of Interest: None declared.
National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Indian J Community Med. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Address for correspondence: Dr. E-mail: moc. Received Nov 8; Accepted Jun This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Air pollution is responsible for many health problems in the urban areas. Keywords: Air pollution Delhi, control measures, health. Open in a separate window. Effects of Air Pollution on Health A large number of studies in Delhi have examined the effect of air pollution on respiratory functions and the associated morbidity.
Table 2 Effects of air pollution in Delhi on health. Vehicular Policy Control measures so far instituted include introduction of unleaded petrol , catalytic converter in passenger cars , reduction of sulfur content in diesel and reduction of benzene content in fuels Benefits Accrued as a Result of Control Measures Since the first act on pollution was instituted, huge progress has been made in terms of human resource, infrastructure development and research capability.
Conclusion The Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi has taken several steps to reduce the level of air pollution in the city during the last 10 years. References 1.
Dec, [last accessed on September 20]. WHO Air quality guidelines for particulate matter, ozone, nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide, Global update , Summary of risk assessment. Goyal R, Khare M. Indo air quality modelling for PM 10, PM 2. Environ Monit Assess. Kumar A, Scott Clark C. Lead loadings in household dust in Delhi, India. Indoor Air. Environ Sci Technol. Particle size distribution and its elemental composition in the ambient air of Delhi. Environ Int.
Land Pollution: Causes, Effects, and Prevention
Most of us are accustomed to the sounds we hear every day. However, when the sound of the television keeps you from sleeping all night or the traffic starts giving you a headache, it transcends the boundaries of mere noise and qualifies as noise pollution. However, the noise that tends to disrupt the natural rhythm of life makes for one of the biggest pollutants. By definition, noise pollution takes place when there is either an excessive amount of noise or an unpleasant sound that causes a temporary disruption in the natural balance. This definition is usually applicable to sounds or noises that are unnatural in either their volume or their production. Our environment is such that it has become difficult to escape the noise. Even electrical appliances at home have a constant hum or beeping sound.
As the world becomes more urbanized, the use of machine-technology increases, and levels of development become higher and more complex, human exposure to noise increases. One authority estimates that the average noise level in the American city is increasing by 1 dB annually. Despite the importance and great scale of the problem, geographers generally have ignored the field of noise pollution research, perhaps because specialized equipment is necessary to accumulate the data required for analysis. As a result, most noise pollution research has been performed by traffic engineers, industrial designers and urban planners to solve immediate problems with little regard for more general consideration. This article provides background which may serve as a foundation for future research on this most significant human problem.
Atmospheric pollution is not the only type of contamination that is harming living beings on the planet. And according to the European Environment Agency EEA , noise is responsible for 16, premature deaths and more than 72, hospitalisations every year in Europe alone. According to the WHO, noise is harmful when it exceeds 75 decibels dB and feels painful at levels above dB. Drivers honking the horn, groups of workers drilling the road surface, aircraft flying over us in the sky Noise, noise and more noise. Cities have become the epicentre of a type of pollution, acoustics, which, although its invisibility and the fact that coronavirus crisis reduced it until almost yearn it, is severely damaging to human beings.
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Noise pollution has become a major environmental problem leading to nuisances and health issues. This paper aims to study and analyse the noise pollution levels in major areas in Ota metropolis. A probability model which is capable of predicting the noise pollution level is also determined. Datasets on the noise pollution level in 41 locations across Ota metropolis were used in this research.
Noise pollution , unwanted or excessive sound that can have deleterious effects on human health, wildlife, and environmental quality. Noise pollution is commonly generated inside many industrial facilities and some other workplaces, but it also comes from highway, railway, and airplane traffic and from outdoor construction activities. Sound waves are vibrations of air molecules carried from a noise source to the ear. Sound is typically described in terms of the loudness amplitude and the pitch frequency of the wave.
A man working with a jackhammer in a construction site. This lists the logos of programs or partners of NG Education which have provided or contributed the content on this page. Powered by.
Noise may not seem as harmful as the contamination of air or water, but it IS a pollution problem that affects human health and can contribute to a general deterioration of environmental quality.
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Но монитор. Она показывает восемнадцать… - Коммандер Стратмор велел вам уйти. - Плевал я на Стратмора! - закричал Чатрукьян, и его слова громким эхом разнеслись по шифровалке. - Мистер Чатрукьян? - послышался сверху звучный возглас.
ГЛАВА 109 Командный центр главного банка данных АНБ более всего напоминал Центр управления полетами НАСА в миниатюре. Десяток компьютерных терминалов располагались напротив видеоэкрана, занимавшего всю дальнюю стену площадью девять на двенадцать метров. На экране стремительно сменяли друг друга цифры и диаграммы, как будто кто-то скользил рукой по клавишам управления.
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Тело же его было бледно-желтого цвета - кроме крохотного красноватого кровоподтека прямо над сердцем. Скорее всего от искусственного дыхания и массажа сердца, - подумал Беккер. - Жаль, что бедняге это не помогло.
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