Surface And Colloid Chemistry Principles And Applications PdfBy Currey P. In and pdf 01.04.2021 at 20:53 4 min read
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This thoroughly updated edition continues to provide a concise overall coverage of colloid and surface chemistry, intermediate between the brief accounts in physical chemistry textbooks and the comprehensive coverage in specialized treatises. New information is included on the composition and structure of solid surfaces, dynamic light scattering, micro emulsions and colloid stability control. The book provides a sound, but easy to follow theoretical framework.
- Surface and Colloid Chemistry: Principles and Applications
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Surface and Colloid Chemistry: Principles and Applications
In chemistry , a colloid is a phase separated mixture in which one substance of microscopically dispersed insoluble or soluble particles is suspended throughout another substance. Sometimes the dispersed substance alone is called the colloid;  the term colloidal suspension refers unambiguously to the overall mixture although a narrower sense of the word suspension is distinguished from colloids by larger particle size.
Unlike a solution , whose solute and solvent constitute only one phase , a colloid has a dispersed phase the suspended particles and a continuous phase the medium of suspension that arise by phase separation. Typically, colloids do not completely settle or take a long time to settle completely into two separated layers. The dispersed-phase particles have a diameter between approximately 1 and nanometers. Homogeneous mixtures with a dispersed phase in this size range may be called colloidal aerosols , colloidal emulsions , colloidal foams , colloidal dispersions , or hydrosols.
The dispersed-phase particles or droplets are affected largely by the surface chemistry present in the colloid. Some colloids are translucent because of the Tyndall effect , which is the scattering of light by particles in the colloid.
Other colloids may be opaque or have a slight color. The cytoplasm of living cells is an example of a colloid, containing many types of biomolecular condensate. Colloidal suspensions are the subject of interface and colloid science. This field of study was introduced in by Italian chemist Francesco Selmi  and further investigated since by Scottish scientist Thomas Graham. Because the size of the dispersed phase may be difficult to measure, and because colloids have the appearance of solutions , colloids are sometimes identified and characterized by their physico-chemical and transport properties.
For example, if a colloid consists of a solid phase dispersed in a liquid, the solid particles will not diffuse through a membrane, whereas with a true solution the dissolved ions or molecules will diffuse through a membrane. Because of the size exclusion, the colloidal particles are unable to pass through the pores of an ultrafiltration membrane with a size smaller than their own dimension.
The smaller the size of the pore of the ultrafiltration membrane, the lower the concentration of the dispersed colloidal particles remaining in the ultrafiltered liquid. The measured value of the concentration of a truly dissolved species will thus depend on the experimental conditions applied to separate it from the colloidal particles also dispersed in the liquid. This is particularly important for solubility studies of readily hydrolyzed species such as Al, Eu, Am, Cm, or organic matter complexing these species.
Colloids can be classified as follows:. Based on the nature of interaction between the dispersed phase and the dispersion medium, colloids can be classified as: Hydrophilic colloids : The colloid particles are attracted toward water. They are also called reversible sols. Hydrophobic colloids : These are opposite in nature to hydrophilic colloids.
The colloid particles are repelled by water. They are also called irreversible sols. In some cases, a colloid suspension can be considered a semi-homogeneous mixture. This is because the distinction between "dissolved" solution and "particulate" suspension matter can be sometimes a matter of approach, which affects whether or not it is homogeneous or heterogeneous. The following forces play an important role in the interaction of colloid particles:   .
There are two principal ways to prepare colloids: . The stability of a colloidal system is defined by particles remaining suspended in solution at equilibrium. Stability is hindered by aggregation and sedimentation phenomena, which are driven by the colloid's tendency to reduce surface energy. Reducing the interfacial tension will stabilize the colloidal system by reducing this driving force. Aggregation is due to the sum of the interaction forces between particles.
Electrostatic stabilization and steric stabilization are the two main mechanisms for stabilization against aggregation. A combination of the two mechanisms is also possible electrosteric stabilization. All the above-mentioned mechanisms for minimizing particle aggregation rely on the enhancement of the repulsive interaction forces.
Particle sedimentation and also floating, although this phenomenon is less common arises from a difference in the density of the dispersed and of the continuous phase. The higher the difference in densities, the faster the particle settling. The method consists in adding to the colloidal suspension a polymer able to form a gel network and characterized by shear thinning properties.
Examples of such substances are xanthan and guar gum. Particle settling is hindered by the stiffness of the polymeric matrix where particles are trapped. The rheological shear thinning properties find beneficial in the preparation of the suspensions and in their use, as the reduced viscosity at high shear rates facilitates deagglomeration, mixing and in general the flow of the suspensions. Unstable colloidal dispersions can form either flocs or aggregates as the particles assemble due to interparticle attractions.
Flocs are loose and flexible conglomerates of the particles, whereas aggregates are compact and rigid entities. There are methods that distinguish between flocculation and aggregation, such as acoustic spectroscopy. Unstable colloidal suspensions of low-volume fraction form clustered liquid suspensions, wherein individual clusters of particles fall to the bottom of the suspension or float to the top if the particles are less dense than the suspending medium once the clusters are of sufficient size for the Brownian forces that work to keep the particles in suspension to be overcome by gravitational forces.
However, colloidal suspensions of higher-volume fraction form colloidal gels with viscoelastic properties. Viscoelastic colloidal gels, such as bentonite and toothpaste , flow like liquids under shear, but maintain their shape when shear is removed. It is for this reason that toothpaste can be squeezed from a toothpaste tube, but stays on the toothbrush after it is applied.
Multiple light scattering coupled with vertical scanning is the most widely used technique to monitor the dispersion state of a product, hence identifying and quantifying destabilisation phenomena. The backscattering intensity is directly proportional to the size and volume fraction of the dispersed phase. Therefore, local changes in concentration e. Creaming and Sedimentation and global changes in size e. The kinetic process of destabilisation can be rather long up to several months or even years for some products and it is often required for the formulator to use further accelerating methods in order to reach reasonable development time for new product design.
Thermal methods are the most commonly used and consists in increasing temperature to accelerate destabilisation below critical temperatures of phase inversion or chemical degradation. Temperature affects not only the viscosity, but also interfacial tension in the case of non-ionic surfactants or more generally interactions forces inside the system. Storing a dispersion at high temperatures enables to simulate real life conditions for a product e.
Mechanical acceleration including vibration, centrifugation and agitation are sometimes used. However, some emulsions would never coalesce in normal gravity, while they do under artificial gravity. In physics , colloids are an interesting model system for atoms. Many of the forces that govern the structure and behavior of matter, such as excluded volume interactions or electrostatic forces, govern the structure and behavior of colloidal suspensions. For example, the same techniques used to model ideal gases can be applied to model the behavior of a hard sphere colloidal suspension.
In addition, phase transitions in colloidal suspensions can be studied in real time using optical techniques,  and are analogous to phase transitions in liquids. In many interesting cases optical fluidity is used to control colloid suspensions.
A colloidal crystal is a highly ordered array of particles that can be formed over a very long range typically on the order of a few millimeters to one centimeter and that appear analogous to their atomic or molecular counterparts. The periodic arrays of submicrometre spherical particles provide similar arrays of interstitial voids , which act as a natural diffraction grating for visible light waves , particularly when the interstitial spacing is of the same order of magnitude as the incident lightwave.
Thus, it has been known for many years that, due to repulsive Coulombic interactions, electrically charged macromolecules in an aqueous environment can exhibit long-range crystal -like correlations with interparticle separation distances, often being considerably greater than the individual particle diameter.
The large number of experiments exploring the physics and chemistry of these so-called "colloidal crystals" has emerged as a result of the relatively simple methods that have evolved in the last 20 years for preparing synthetic monodisperse colloids both polymer and mineral and, through various mechanisms, implementing and preserving their long-range order formation.
Colloidal phase separation is an important organising principle for compartmentalisation of both the cytoplasm and nucleus of cells into biomolecular condensates , similar in importance to compartmentalisation via lipid bilayer membranes - a type of liquid crystal. The term biomolecular condensate has been used to refer to clusters of macromolecules that arise via liquid-liquid or liquid-solid phase separation within cells.
Macromolecular crowding strongly enhances colloidal phase separation and formation of biomolecular condensates. Colloidal particles can also serve as transport vector  of diverse contaminants in the surface water sea water, lakes, rivers, fresh water bodies and in underground water circulating in fissured rocks  e.
Radionuclides and heavy metals easily sorb onto colloids suspended in water. Various types of colloids are recognised: inorganic colloids e. When heavy metals or radionuclides form their own pure colloids, the term " eigencolloid " is used to designate pure phases, i.
Colloids have been suspected for the long-range transport of plutonium on the Nevada Nuclear Test Site. They have been the subject of detailed studies for many years. However, the mobility of inorganic colloids is very low in compacted bentonites and in deep clay formations  because of the process of ultrafiltration occurring in dense clay membrane.
Colloid solutions used in intravenous therapy belong to a major group of volume expanders , and can be used for intravenous fluid replacement. Colloids preserve a high colloid osmotic pressure in the blood,  and therefore, they should theoretically preferentially increase the intravascular volume , whereas other types of volume expanders called crystalloids also increase the interstitial volume and intracellular volume. However, there is still controversy to the actual difference in efficacy by this difference,  and much of the research related to this use of colloids is based on fraudulent research by Joachim Boldt.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. A mixture of an insoluble substance microscopically dispersed throughout another substance. States of matter. Phase phenomena. Electronic phases. Electronic phenomena. Magnetic phases. Soft matter. IUPAC definition. Colloid : Short synonym for colloidal system. Main article: Colloidal crystal. Britannica Online Encyclopedia. Retrieved 31 August Boston: McGraw-Hill.
From page "As gelatine appears to be its type, it is proposed to designate substances of the class as colloids , and to speak of their peculiar form of aggregation as the colloidal condition of matter.
Jones; Edward S. Wilks; W. RSC Publ. Pure and Applied Chemistry.
NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Chemistry
In chemistry , a colloid is a phase separated mixture in which one substance of microscopically dispersed insoluble or soluble particles is suspended throughout another substance. Sometimes the dispersed substance alone is called the colloid;  the term colloidal suspension refers unambiguously to the overall mixture although a narrower sense of the word suspension is distinguished from colloids by larger particle size. Unlike a solution , whose solute and solvent constitute only one phase , a colloid has a dispersed phase the suspended particles and a continuous phase the medium of suspension that arise by phase separation. Typically, colloids do not completely settle or take a long time to settle completely into two separated layers. The dispersed-phase particles have a diameter between approximately 1 and nanometers.
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Chapter headings. Selected papers. Introduction to the thermodynamics of the discontinuity surface in a single component system.
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The target is to direct individuals towards problem solving strategies, rather than solving problems in one prescribed format. The links below provide the detailed solutions for all the Class 12 Chemistry problems. Chemistry is much more than the language of Science. We have made sure that our solutions reflect the same. We aim to aid the students with answering the questions correctly, using logical approach and methodology.
Interface and colloid science is an important, though often under-valued, branch of science. It has applications and ramifications in domains as disparate as agriculture, mineral dressing, oil recovery, chemical industry, biotechnology, medical science, and many more. Proper application of interface and colloid science requires factual knowledge and insight into the many basic laws of physics and chemistry upon which it is based. Fundamentals of Interface and Colloid Science is the first book to cover this field in the depth neccessary to be a valuable reference and an excellent textbook.
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