Western Civilization Their History And Their Culture PdfBy Clea A. In and pdf 29.03.2021 at 23:51 4 min read
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- Western Civilizations: Their History & Their Culture, Vol.2 18th Edition
- Early Western Civilization
Western civilization courses are offered through the Humanities and Western Civilization Program. These general education courses form a 2-semester interdisciplinary program that critically examines the ideas and values of Western culture from its early expressions in ancient Greece, Rome, and Israel through the modern period. The presentation of material is both historical and thematic.
From the Christian crusades of the Middle Ages to the fatwa on Salman Rushdie at the close of the millennium, the predominately Christian societies of Western Europe and North America have been suspicious and fearful of Muslims.
Conversely, Muslim adherents of Islam find much in Western social values and practices antithetical to their tradition. T he arena of conflict between these communities is changing rapidly, primarily due to the technological innovations of the information age and the confrontation of cultures.
No longer are geographical boundaries adequate to separate these cultures. At the same time, Muslims of the diaspora are creating religious and cultural enclaves using Arabsat and the Internet, as well as traditional channels. Yet, recent Islamic migrants to Western nations face the dilemma of finding their authentic voice in popular Western culture, balanced against their fears of cultural assimilation and loss of identity.
They seek to know how is it possible to move toward the center of Western culture without compromising deeply-held religious beliefs and traditions. Navigating the cultural conflicts between Islam and the West is not a trivial challenge given sharply contrasting worldviews; the two domains of knowledge are poorly matched.
Islam offers a totalized worldview encompassing all spheres of community intercourse: political, economic, social, etc. The West isolates the spheres of knowledge and action and enshrines the individual. The clash that arises from conflicting worldviews leaves emotional and psychological scars. The Islamic world consists of diverse ethnic, cultural, and geographic populations, and faces the challenge of uniting diverse national cultures.
There are thirty countries, mainly in Asia and Africa, with a total population of about million, in which Muslims have an overall majority; many more countries have sizable Muslim minorities. The total Muslim world population is close to 1. The Muslim population has grown rapidly in Europe and North America in the past two decades. There is a growing Islamic presence in the United States, although it is concentrated primarily in a dozen major urban centers El-Badry, At the close of the twentieth century, there were approximately thirty-five million Muslims in Europe and North America, with about 1, mosques and Islamic centers in the United States.
Adaptation of Islamic peoples into a secular society depends on their resourcefulness. No longer satisfied to be strangers in a strange land, some Muslims are beginning to claim a kind of cultural ownership in America. They point to Black African slaves who held Islamic beliefs until as late as the early part of the twentieth century.
Earlier, migration of the Melungeons came to North America prior to the s. The first waves of Arabic immigrants from Lebanon and Syria occurred in the s and s Haddad, Even though Muslims embrace different religious traditions i. Traditional Muslims affirm, as did Pakistani anthropologist Akbar S. More than two decades ago, Edward Said argued that Western values were dominating the Arab and Islamic worlds by a curious twist of global consumerism: Arabs exchanged their oil in the open world marketplace for a foreign and antagonistic Western culture.
Muslim adherents disagree about the power of Western values to secularize Islamic culture. Traditionalists argue either for severance of Islamic nations with Western institutions, or for globalization of Islamic values. The history of Muslim-Christian dialogue includes periods of great hostility and open war, as well as times of uneasy toleration, peaceful coexistence, and even cooperation toward shared goals Kimball, A growing consensus, however, suggests Islamic- Western tensions may be growing with the expanding information society Yamani, Some Islamic leaders do promote the goal of internationalization and globalization.
He argued that Muslims should not fear globalization and should seek to benefit from all the means of progress in science, economics and wealth. The dialogue between Islam and the West over fundamental disagreements in worldviews has occurred quietly, behind the controversies Lewis, Muslims are critical of Western media because of their invasiveness. Others have observed the struggle to develop a comprehensive theory for mass communication to compete with Western theories of communication Hussain, ; Pasha, ; El-Affendi, ; and Al-Hajji, The Western media offend Muslims at two levels: first, Muslims are often demonized in media programs as fundamentalists, terrorists, or religious zealots; and, second, many Western cultural practices, including drinking alcohol, gambling, and permissive sexual activities are too offensive for Islamic moral-ethical tradition.
Growing more astute to political action, Arab and Islamic action groups now address the imbalances in the negative images that have been used in media programming for at least two decades Al-Disuqi, ; Ghareeb, ; Kamalipour, Television has been condemned most frequently because of its invasiveness. It conveys the modernist message in the most enticing forms directly to Islamic homes.
Islamic parents are offered a wide range of guidelines on American customs, mix-gendered activities, and media use. Muslims are urged not to celebrate birthdays, for example, because they are an expression of an unacceptable selfishness. Mixed-gender activities, such as dating, dancing, and swimming, are regarded as sexually permissive.
Muslim attitudes toward the invasiveness of American television and movies are especially harsh:. Many TV programs are downright harmful and vicious in their effects.
Of particular worry to conservative Muslims are the romantic subplots and vivid violence in many media programs. Alternatives to such entertainment have been scarce until recently.
Using fictional characters, the film weaves a story from the Koran about the adventure of a young boy in an Ethiopian kingdom. The avowed goal was to sell at least , copies of the film. The creators sought to create a plot based on friendship, trust in God Allah , and family values.
The production scrupulously avoided un-Islamic images and messages. Missing in the dialogue over accommodation of Islamic values in Western culture, however, are the voices of young Muslims who find new ways to invent religious traditions in a modern milieu.
Islamic resistance to offending media portrayals is also achieved by increasingly well-organized political groups. CAIR has organized twenty local chapters in major American and Canadian cities to train volunteers as monitors of local media programs and to report ethnic-religious slurs. Management of broadcast and news operations have been targeted in order to change the persistent negative images.
In a widely distributed Know Your Rights pocket guide distributed to Muslim activists, instructions were offered about how Muslims can approach newspaper editors and media managers to get favorable response:. React quickly to news of the day of negative coverage. If possible have the letter in the hands of an editor on the same day in which the negative coverage appears. Be authoritative. Speak on behalf of an organization, even if you have to create that organization.
Be passionate or even controversial, but avoid rhetoric and defamation. More abstractly, Muslim outrage over negative images can be traced historically to prohibitions in early Islam against graphic images of all types. Those most severely punished on the Day of Judgment—along with the murderer of a prophet and the seducer from true knowledge—will be the maker of images or pictures Boorstin, The diversity of the American Muslim community is a distinct obstacle to effective organized political and social action.
One factor that contributes to this diversity is the absence of a cultural leader or spokesperson, one clearly identified as a defender of Islamic values and worldview in the mainstream media. Among the media personalities who are variously identified as representative of the Islam cultural tradition are numerous professional athletes who have changed their names i. A popular recording artist and folk singer in the late s and early s, Stevens changed his name to Yusuf Islam in , after his conversion to the Islamic faith.
A written account of his religious conversion outlines his emerging awareness of the incompatibility of his religious convictions with Western cultural identity:. I wanted to be a big star. All those things I saw in the films and on the media took hold of me, and perhaps I thought this was my God. I decided then that this was the life for me; to make a lot of money, have a great life.
Now my examples were the pop stars. I started making songs. So, what happened was I became very famous. I was still a teenager, my name and photo were splashed in all the media. They made me larger than life, so I wanted to live larger than life, and the only way to do that was to be intoxicated with liquor and drugs Islam, In the West, whoever wishes to embrace a religion, and make it his only way of life, is deemed a fanatic.
Rushdie tested Muslim resolve with his writings, bringing notice to the collision of cultures in the new mediated global arena. What resulted was both new popular awareness and precedent to deal with such worldview conflicts. In order to maintain their identity, Muslim individuals and groups, similar to other minority groups in Western society, have created different types of cultural and communicative strategies to main their dual cultural citizenship.
Muslims have employed cultural and communicative strategies to balance their dual cultural citizenship. Through these strategies, they maintain a lifeworld that reinvigorates the religious, cultural, and social heritage with Islam.
So it happens that through these processes of communication and interaction, group formation and mutual solidarity i.
The development of new electronic media have made global pathways even more feasible for the Islamic lifeworld, opening the realization to many adherents that Islam can maintain its spiritual center and still extend its geographic reach.
Through colonization of the electronic pathways, Western values can intervene into the religious sphere, which depends on communicative action and dialogical discourse. One solution to this dilemma is for Muslims to further the processes of enclave building. The dynamics of enclave formation leads to a discourse of constraint and empowerment as an existential strategy to combat U.
Even though communication technologies played a powerful role in the globalization of Western values and images, those technologies gained acceptance more slowly in most of the Islamic world. Technology may have been an obstacle for Islam at political and management levels. Broadcast systems in Arab countries have operated without general agreement about a philosophy arising from pan-Arabic or pan-Islamic, or even national, goals Boyd, Egypt, in particular, has become the leading source of offending programs and publications.
Other non-Arab Islamic nations such as Indonesia and Malaysia have moved toward a less defensive global posture, but remain uncertain about the future challenge of communication and technology.
Vast distances, language diversity, and lack of central planning inhibited broadcasting from achieving its potential in the Middle East. Others have argued that media technologies were particularly ill-fitted for the social and cultural traditions of the Arab world. Media systems in Arab countries operated for several decades without a philosophy tied to the goals of the countries Boyd, Further, Arab broadcasting operations seemed to have no way to accommodate a method of systematic audience feedback or research, contributing to a tradition stressing top-down programming decisions.
The development of electronic networks and individualized media has made new cultural pathways possible for enclave Muslims. Hundreds of world wide web sites have been created on Islamic topics, but such initiatives are poorly coordinated and do not contribute significantly to the advancement of institutional Islam like the older television and radio systems. The information age has created a new communication regime enhancing a mutual process of empowerment among the ranks of Muslims through out the world.
Perceived from within the daily developments in Muslim everyday life, technology is critical to this empowerment process. The introduction of Arabsat has changed the landscape of Arab and Islamic communication.
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From the Christian crusades of the Middle Ages to the fatwa on Salman Rushdie at the close of the millennium, the predominately Christian societies of Western Europe and North America have been suspicious and fearful of Muslims. Conversely, Muslim adherents of Islam find much in Western social values and practices antithetical to their tradition. T he arena of conflict between these communities is changing rapidly, primarily due to the technological innovations of the information age and the confrontation of cultures. No longer are geographical boundaries adequate to separate these cultures. At the same time, Muslims of the diaspora are creating religious and cultural enclaves using Arabsat and the Internet, as well as traditional channels. Yet, recent Islamic migrants to Western nations face the dilemma of finding their authentic voice in popular Western culture, balanced against their fears of cultural assimilation and loss of identity.
Western civilization traces its roots back to Europe and the Mediterranean. It is linked to ancient Greece , the Roman Empire and with Medieval Western Christendom which emerged from the Middle Ages to experience such transformative episodes as the Renaissance , the Reformation , the Enlightenment , the Industrial Revolution , scientific revolution , and the development of liberal democracy. The civilizations of Classical Greece and Ancient Rome are considered seminal periods in Western history; a few cultural contributions also emerged from the pagan peoples of pre-Christian Europe, such as the Celts and Germans, as well as some significant religious contributions derived from Judaism and Hellenistic Judaism stemming back to Second Temple Judea , Galilee , and the early Jewish diaspora ;    and some other Middle Eastern influences. By the 12th century, Western Europe was experiencing a flowering of art and learning , propelled by the construction of cathedrals, the establishment of medieval universities , and greater contact with the medieval Islamic world via Al-Andalus and Sicily , from where Arabic texts on science and philosophy were translated into Latin. Christian unity was shattered by the Reformation from the 16th century. A merchant class grew out of city states , initially in the Italian peninsula see Italian city-states , and Europe experienced the Renaissance from the 14th to the 17th century, heralding an age of technological and artistic advance and ushering in the Age of Discovery which saw the rise of such global European Empires as those of Spain and Portugal. The Industrial Revolution began in Britain in the 18th century.
Western Civilizations: Their History & Their Culture, Vol.2 18th Edition
This is part of our special feature, Imagining, Thinking, and Teaching Europe. While significant modification was made to accommodate for the COVID pandemic, in particular an assignment to research, script, and record a podcast, the syllabus describes how the course was originally envisioned. As teachers, we are dedicated to introducing our Texas State students to the variety of cultures and peoples that co-exist in our world. We are committed to the freedom of expression. We condemn bigoted speech, which threatens public safety, restricts academic freedom, and tacitly justifies hate.
Publisher: Portland Community College. The text is very comprehensive in terms of the number of civilizations and cultures covered. In fact, I wonder if even a week semester would suffice to cover them. It is gratifying to see a fairly detailed chapter on Islamic civilization.
The Western world , also known as the West , refers to various regions , nations and states , depending on the context, most often consisting of the majority of Europe , [a] Northern America and Australasia.
Early Western Civilization
From the Christian crusades of the Middle Ages to the fatwa on Salman Rushdie at the close of the millennium, the predominately Christian societies of Western Europe and North America have been suspicious and fearful of Muslims. Conversely, Muslim adherents of Islam find much in Western social values and practices antithetical to their tradition. T he arena of conflict between these communities is changing rapidly, primarily due to the technological innovations of the information age and the confrontation of cultures. No longer are geographical boundaries adequate to separate these cultures. At the same time, Muslims of the diaspora are creating religious and cultural enclaves using Arabsat and the Internet, as well as traditional channels.
Этот тарантас когда-нибудь остановится. - Еще пять миль. - Куда мы едем. Парень расплылся в широкой улыбке. - А то ты не знаешь.
Поэтому отключение представляло собой сложную серию подтверждений и протоколов, гораздо более сложную, чем запуск ядерной ракеты с подводной лодки. - У нас есть время, но только если мы поспешим, - сказал Джабба. - Отключение вручную займет минут тридцать. Фонтейн по-прежнему смотрел на ВР, перебирая в уме остающиеся возможности. - Директор! - взорвался Джабба. - Когда эти стены рухнут, вся планета получит высший уровень допуска к нашим секретам. Высший уровень.
Подожди минутку! - махнул он рукой, словно прося ее остановиться. - Стратмор сказал, что у них все в порядке.
Рядом со мной Сьюзан Флетчер. В тот момент Сьюзан поняла, за что уважает Тревора Стратмора. Все эти десять лет, в штиль и в бурю, он вел ее за. Уверенно и неуклонно. Не сбиваясь с курса.
Неужели он ее трогает. Она не сразу поняла, что он пытается застегнуть верхнюю пуговицу ее блузки. - Сьюзан, - позвал он, задыхаясь. - Ты должна помочь мне выбраться отсюда.
Ком… мандер, - задыхаясь, пробормотала она, сбитая с толку. - Я думала… я думала, что вы наверху… я слышала… - Успокойся, - прошептал. - Ты слышала, как я швырнул на верхнюю площадку свои ботинки.